Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and

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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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14 May 2008, 10:43
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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?
A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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14 May 2008, 10:56
A.. The historian is defending the position that they were independent of each other.
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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14 May 2008, 16:03
C?
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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14 May 2008, 17:30
D for me
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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14 May 2008, 18:26
C for me too.
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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14 May 2008, 18:26
D looks to be the best one.
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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14 May 2008, 18:28
saravalli wrote:
Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

I choose C, as the second bold comment states a conclusion based on the defensive evidence provided in the first bold statement.
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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14 May 2008, 18:32
This one is cool.

The first Bold Face is an evidence that Leibniz’ stole from Newton. But 'however' in the following line says that author is changing direction.
The second Bold face is an evidence that Leibniz actually did not steal and this is the main conclusion.
Quote:
A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

A - Eliminate . First Bold Face is not overall
B - Eliminate. A and B are not same
C- Eliminate. A does not support overall conclusion
D- CORRECT. Historian says Leibniz is wrongly blamed. He looks for a closer insight. Second is an evidence for his own final conclusion
E- Eliminate. A and B are not same
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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14 May 2008, 19:40
C for me.
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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14 May 2008, 20:34
Historian: (traditional) Both Leibniz and Newton views were independent discoveries.
Bold Face 1: Supports Historian Criticism
Bold Face 2: Supports Traditional View

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?
A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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15 May 2008, 00:43
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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15 May 2008, 08:43
OA is D. Thanks
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Re: CR - calculus (boldface) [#permalink]

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15 May 2008, 10:01
N dev. math fundamental to modern calc.
L dev closely anlogous stuff.
TV : Both are independent
Disc : L's notes that talks about N's book on math
Argue : N's book includes N's concepts & notes written before L's own concept -> TV is false.
Cautios conclusion : L's notes are limited to early sections.

saravalli wrote:
Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?
A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence .
Re: CR - calculus (boldface)   [#permalink] 15 May 2008, 10:01
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