Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and

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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2009, 07:25
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Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

52% (02:59) correct 48% (02:17) wrong based on 450 sessions

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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.

B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.

E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2009, 08:13
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D.

the first boldface section is used by the historian as evidence of why OTHER scholars claim that Liebniz did NOT invent his theories independent of Newton. however, the historian offers the second boldface section to show how taking the view of those other scholars is not necessarily wise.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2009, 08:45
C.

The first boldface portion is in support of the intermediate conclusion "it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false".

The second boldae portion provides evidence against this intermediate conclusion.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2009, 09:19
scthakur wrote:
C.

The first boldface portion is in support of the intermediate conclusion "it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false".

The second boldae portion provides evidence against this intermediate conclusion.

I chose C but C is not OA.

OA is D
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2009, 13:45
I think C is wrong because "it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false" is not the overall position that author supports.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2009, 17:34
I personally found these types of CR questions difficult - I think it's because they are relatively rare. I wish we had more of those here.

I think the answer is D.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2009, 20:59
I agree that below bolded part is not overall position but conclusion that is drawn by historians.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.

D is far better choice but I am not clear about the rubric part below. Is historian criticizing the conclusion "it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false" or just stating her conclusion? Actually I have found that both "defend" and "criticize" are awkward in answer choices.

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2009, 21:40
D for me
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2009, 17:57
D) really good one,
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2009, 21:26
agree.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2009, 03:16
D for me too.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2009, 06:12
Is this considered a hard,mid or easy CR question?
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2009, 10:14
agree to D.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2009, 11:31
I think its D......The use of however after th first boldface shows that this conclusion is criticized....And an opposing evidence is given another conclusion.....
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2009, 21:18
Nice One.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2011, 05:01
yes it is D
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2011, 11:59
nice one and D only.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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21 May 2016, 19:34
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2016, 05:18
A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. - This statement narrows down to Options D and E.

While E states that the second is further information that substantiates that evidence., it the opposite which is stated correctly in D
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2016, 06:20
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.

B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.

E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

wow..this is a long question...took me a while to read the argument then all the answer choices...not to speak about analysis...
1st is a fact used for the intermediate conclusion - the conclusion that the historian opposes. the second is a fact used to support his conclusion.
D fits best here..though C is close..but not really...the first part is good till: that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends
Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and   [#permalink] 28 Oct 2016, 06:20
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