How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane

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How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2005, 23:17
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How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilotsâ€™ lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.
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20 Apr 2005, 05:19
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I believe it is (D). I came close to chosing (C).

The author says that lack flying time cannot be compensated by training on other factors. That means lack of flying time must an important factor.
(C) is a trap because if we negate (C) we get

The number of airline crashes will not decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.

Well this could be true if the airline companies just focused on more flying time and other factors could lead to crashes. This does not break the author's argument but (D) does.
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20 Apr 2005, 18:49
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1) How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes?

2) Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes.

3) To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit.

4) But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilotsâ€™ lack of actual flying time.

5) Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes. <--conclusion

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
- No. The author here is challenging airliens to rethink their trainig approach by providing more actual flying time. A is out.

(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
- If so, any form of training will do. B is out.

(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
- C is close, but 'will' says that the number of crashes decreasing is definite as long as there is an increase in actual flying time.

(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
- This is the assumption required. If lack of actual flying time contributes to pilot error in plane crahses, then the pilot should be given more actual flying time so he/she becomes more proficient.

(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.
- Out of scope.

D is best.
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20 Apr 2005, 19:08
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anandnk wrote:
I believe it is (D). I came close to chosing (C).

The author says that lack flying time cannot be compensated by training on other factors. That means lack of flying time must an important factor.
(C) is a trap because if we negate (C) we get

The number of airline crashes will not decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.

Well this could be true if the airline companies just focused on more flying time and other factors could lead to crashes. This does not break the author's argument but (D) does.

Just to touch on a little bit more on negation here:

If we negate (D), then it will read as:

Lack of actual flying time is not an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.

Obviously, by negating D, the conclusion can no longer hold.

However, if you negate (C), then it will read as:

The number of airlines crashes will not decrease if pilot training program focus on increasing actual flying time.

Okay, by negating this, we know that the number of airline crashes will not decrease, but it does not improve either. So negating C does not hold up the conclusion.
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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21 May 2012, 00:24
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(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors. - It is already stated in the argument. Cannot be an assumption. Argument talks about increasing the training programs. - Incorrect

(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers. - This is also a given piece of information which can be inferred from the given passage. - Incorrect

(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time. - The use of words like "will" makes it an obvious thing. Focusing on actual flying time may not decrease crashes. - Incorrect

(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes. - "Important contributor" states that the lact of actual flying time is one of the contributors for pilor errors. This fills the gap in the argument. Hence this is the assumption - Correct

(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs. - It can be considered to be out of scope - Incorrect
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19 Apr 2005, 23:22
should be D

A - out of scope - doesnt talk about the lack of flying time or anything related to the arguments.

B - out of scope, what trainings ? is not specified.

c - close, but doesnt look an assumption to me.

d- my choice.

e- absurd !
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19 Apr 2005, 23:26
Lets wait for others postings.
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20 Apr 2005, 04:56
(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors. (this might be it) It is not said that lack of training or insufficient training is the cause of pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers. (out of scope)
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time. (well the passage didnâ€™t say that)
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes. ( could be this as well, but the stem does not really emphasize lack of actual flying time that much)
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs. (out of scope)

This is down to A and D.
I will pick A
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20 Apr 2005, 05:16
MA wrote:
How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilotsâ€™ lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.

b/w C and D, I go with D.

C is too absolute.
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20 Apr 2005, 05:30
I will go with 'D'

The 'will decrease' in 'C' is too strong.
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20 Apr 2005, 05:37
Folaa3 wrote:
(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors. (this might be it) It is not said that lack of training or insufficient training is the cause of pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers. (out of scope)
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time. (well the passage didnâ€™t say that)
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes. ( could be this as well, but the stem does not really emphasize lack of actual flying time that much)
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs. (out of scope)

This is down to A and D.
I will pick A

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors. (this might be it) It is not said that lack of training or insufficient training is the cause of pilot errors.

(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes. ( could be this as well, but the stem does not really emphasize lack of actual flying time that much)

Hi, the author said training programs such as increasing the hours of classroom instruction or emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit are not the major factors to reduce crashes. We do not know whether pilot errors are caused by the lack of training programs because he said it is unrealistic to expect such measures.

Also, he implied in fact pilots' flying time is the major factors. So, the lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error.
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20 Apr 2005, 06:15
It's bet C and D....but "D" is better. Once u negate it argument falls apart.
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20 Apr 2005, 08:58
(C) and (D) are close, but i'll take (D).
(C) is too strongly worded (training programs should focus)
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20 Apr 2005, 09:30
thanx guys, OA is D.
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21 Apr 2005, 08:49
I pick D

Here the assumption is that flying time will decrease pilot errors...

A) is to broad in its scope
B)out of context
c) is the conclusion not the assumption!
d) correct
e) not true...
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07 May 2011, 11:38
this is an interesting question . i picked D in 1:27 min , looking at C , negation test got rid of it .
i simply rejected A but negating A yields funny result.
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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10 May 2012, 10:45
+1 D

Beautiful question.
C is tempting, however let's read it again:
"The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs FOCUS ON increasing actual flying time".

The argument says that something must be done to solve the lack of actual flyinng time, but it doesn't claim that the training programs should FOCUS ON that aspect.
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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19 May 2012, 03:46
conclusion:
the airlines should have unrealistic training approach to reducing commercial crashes and should include more actual flying time

Conclusion is based on the assumption :
Lack of Actual Flying experience is also one important factor impacting nbr of acceidents and " Actual Flying experience" should also have more concentration during train

D states exactly the same
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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20 May 2012, 11:44
Really good question...took me 1 min 30 secs to get this.

Used the negate rule to choose between C and D... Pretty Close
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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23 May 2012, 10:50
But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilot's lack of actual flying time.

This line made me think about D as it says that flying time is important factor for a pilot which is assumed that it should not be neglected.
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane   [#permalink] 23 May 2012, 10:50

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