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I got this right but I want to see if my analysis was

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I got this right but I want to see if my analysis was [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2004, 13:07
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A
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C
D
E

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I got this right but I want to see if my analysis was correct. Please explain your answer.

School integration plans that involve busing between suburban and central-city areas have contributed, according to a recent study, to significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces any future need for busing.
(A) significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces
(B) significant integration increases in housing, which, in turn, reduces
(C) increase housing integration significantly, which, in turn, reduces
(D) increase housing integration significantly, in turn reducing
(E) significantly increase housing integration, which, in turn, reduce
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 [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2004, 13:37
C here
A) "significant increases" is wrong. There is "an increase" but not "many increases"
B) again, plural form of "increase" is not desirable
D) "which" is needed to properly refer to "the housing integration" which reduces...
E) "reduce" needs to be in singular form because it is "the housing integration" which reduces
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 [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2004, 16:16
hallelujah1234 wrote:
D it is


Not enough. Please explain your answer. I want to compare my analysis with yours.
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 [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2004, 16:59
I saw this question before, and some explained it using cause-effect rhetoric. Probably that might be the explanation.
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 [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2004, 17:21
A,B, C and E all have ambiguous "which"

D has the adverbial phrase modifying the action conveyed in the first part of the sentence.

E - is out for subject verb agreement
C - is out because "which" refers to the entire sentence before the comma and hence has no clear antecedent.
B - "significant integration increases" is awkward
A - Too many partitions in the sentence. "which"" can be thought of as refering to "housing integration" but the comma after which is unnecessary.
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 [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2004, 18:23
Nice explanation Anandnk. I agreed with D but waited to see an explanation also. It's tough for non-native speakers to make detailed explanations and you are putting in a great deal of effort. Bravo!
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2004, 03:42
Hi Paul,

I am not sure if D is the answer. I am just bringing out possible errors in other choices. In GMAT however some punctuation errors are OK. I believe u did not think much before choosing C for an answer. I have seen you giving good explanations. Sometimes even I miss out the infamous "which"
I was trying to recollect the right word for A). The right description is it has too many fragments. The problem with fragments is that it is hard to map them to any one part of sentence as you move away from the subject.

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 [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2004, 07:01
The answer is A.

Here is my analysis. We need to understand the meaning of the senetnce. The intended meaning of the sentence is that the "School integration" increses housing integration and the increase in the housing integration reduces the future need for busing. Only A conveys this meaning.

In A, I do not think that the presence of comma before "which" is an error. In fact the use of "which" requires a comma before it. "Which" clearly refers to "housing integration"

As for D I see following problems:
(1) I think, it does not convey the meaning that "housing integration" actually reduces the need for busing. As anandk explained, "in turn rducing" is an adverbial phrase modifying the action conveyed in the first part of the sentence. But I think the use of "in turn" is very crucial. Whenever it is used in a sentence it has to be used for the second thing in the first senetence. e.g. A increase B and B in turn increases C.

My real question for this problem was to understand as to which of the following will be correct?

Contribute to + NOUN or

Contribute to + verb.

My inclination is to believe the first one. I would like to know your thoughts.
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2004, 07:07
hallelujah1234 wrote:
I saw this question before, and some explained it using cause-effect rhetoric. Probably that might be the explanation.


I searched for this question on this forum. I could not find it. Where did you see this question before?
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2004, 07:11
I believe contribute to + noun is the right usage. However, I'm also interested in the use of present participle and what it modifies. Here's an interesting link to "the sun clock problem" explained a while back by Praet. I'll look into this one a bit later.
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=4967
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2004, 07:41
Well I got into this fragmentation trap.

I concentrated too much on the fragmentation in A). Here is my modified explanation

" have contributed to" should be followed by either noun or noun phrase.

C, D and E all have verbs/verb phrases
B has a noun but very awkward in the meaning.

I am damn sure about this explanation.
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2004, 07:43
Paul wrote:
I believe contribute to + noun is the right usage. However, I'm also interested in the use of present participle and what it modifies. Here's an interesting link to "the sun clock problem" explained a while back by Praet. I'll look into this one a bit later.
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=4967


The present participle in choice D of the present question modifies the action in the previous clause as anandk explained.

The participle in the link you provided clearly modifies the noun "local times". There is no action in the preceding clause in that sentence. So do not get confused.
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2004, 08:26
Hi Paul and gmatblast

Please gothrough this link to get a clear picture on the SC on "railroads"
Paul this thread might partially answer your question about participle phrases.

http://www.testmagic.com/forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=800

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 [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2004, 08:37
Yes, A is the right answer.

School integration plans have contributed to significant increases ...

Only choice A is the best completion.

You cannot say "contributed to significant integration" in (B).

Nor can you say "contributed to increase housing integration" in (C).

Nor "contributed to increase housing integration significantly" in (D).

Nor "contributed to significantly increase housing integration" in (E).
  [#permalink] 19 Apr 2004, 08:37
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