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I got this right but I want to see if my analysis was [#permalink]
18 Apr 2004, 14:07
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I got this right but I want to see if my analysis was correct. Please explain your answer.
School integration plans that involve busing between suburban and central-city areas have contributed, according to a recent study, to significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces any future need for busing.
(A) significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces
(B) significant integration increases in housing, which, in turn, reduces
(C) increase housing integration significantly, which, in turn, reduces
(D) increase housing integration significantly, in turn reducing
(E) significantly increase housing integration, which, in turn, reduce
A) "significant increases" is wrong. There is "an increase" but not "many increases"
B) again, plural form of "increase" is not desirable
D) "which" is needed to properly refer to "the housing integration" which reduces...
E) "reduce" needs to be in singular form because it is "the housing integration" which reduces _________________
D has the adverbial phrase modifying the action conveyed in the first part of the sentence.
E - is out for subject verb agreement
C - is out because "which" refers to the entire sentence before the comma and hence has no clear antecedent.
B - "significant integration increases" is awkward
A - Too many partitions in the sentence. "which"" can be thought of as refering to "housing integration" but the comma after which is unnecessary.
Nice explanation Anandnk. I agreed with D but waited to see an explanation also. It's tough for non-native speakers to make detailed explanations and you are putting in a great deal of effort. Bravo!
I am not sure if D is the answer. I am just bringing out possible errors in other choices. In GMAT however some punctuation errors are OK. I believe u did not think much before choosing C for an answer. I have seen you giving good explanations. Sometimes even I miss out the infamous "which" I was trying to recollect the right word for A). The right description is it has too many fragments. The problem with fragments is that it is hard to map them to any one part of sentence as you move away from the subject.
Here is my analysis. We need to understand the meaning of the senetnce. The intended meaning of the sentence is that the "School integration" increses housing integration and the increase in the housing integration reduces the future need for busing. Only A conveys this meaning.
In A, I do not think that the presence of comma before "which" is an error. In fact the use of "which" requires a comma before it. "Which" clearly refers to "housing integration"
As for D I see following problems:
(1) I think, it does not convey the meaning that "housing integration" actually reduces the need for busing. As anandk explained, "in turn rducing" is an adverbial phrase modifying the action conveyed in the first part of the sentence. But I think the use of "in turn" is very crucial. Whenever it is used in a sentence it has to be used for the second thing in the first senetence. e.g. A increase B and B in turn increases C.
My real question for this problem was to understand as to which of the following will be correct?
Contribute to + NOUN or
Contribute to + verb.
My inclination is to believe the first one. I would like to know your thoughts.
I believe contribute to + noun is the right usage. However, I'm also interested in the use of present participle and what it modifies. Here's an interesting link to "the sun clock problem" explained a while back by Praet. I'll look into this one a bit later.
I believe contribute to + noun is the right usage. However, I'm also interested in the use of present participle and what it modifies. Here's an interesting link to "the sun clock problem" explained a while back by Praet. I'll look into this one a bit later. http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=4967
The present participle in choice D of the present question modifies the action in the previous clause as anandk explained.
The participle in the link you provided clearly modifies the noun "local times". There is no action in the preceding clause in that sentence. So do not get confused.