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I love Sentence Correction Guide to English Grammar Learn

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I love Sentence Correction Guide to English Grammar Learn [#permalink] New post 26 Oct 2012, 10:26
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Guide to English Grammar

Learn about Grammar Traps at
[url]Great link : http://www.agriculture.purdue.edu/agcomm/traps.html[/url]

1. Just as ...., so
This is a idion. Just remember it.

2. in that vs because - in that is used to talk about some aspects, and because is used to talk about all aspects
Example :
Going to Ivy league college is very stressfull because it includes huge expenses.
means
Going to Ivy league college is very stressfull in all aspects

Going to Ivy league college is very stressfull in that it includes huge expenses.
means
Going to Ivy league college is very stressfull from economic point of view.

3.
so + adjective/adverb/noun + that + sentence
Example - So hard that
so + adjective/adverb/noun + as + infinitive
Example - So hard as to

Example :
Usage - Something is so beautiful that... is preferred over so beautiful is soemthing that...

4. Although all the shows telecast were not live - It means none of the shows were telecast live
Although not all the shows were telecast live - It means some of them were telecast live.

5. such as - Means for example

6. in order to do - short form is to do

7. I hate him, for he is a christian - the word for means because

8. Greater numbers is preferrable to more numbers

9. usage of so as to and so that
First, you should know that such + noun + as to is much less common than so + adj/adv + as to.
Now, for the difference between these two. I think these are best illustrated with examples:

Xue Mei spoke in such a way as to calm us down.

The sales materials are presented in such a way as to encourage attendees to purchase the products on the spot.

These usages focus on doing an action and paying to that action while you are doing it so that the action creates
a result. To simplify a bit, these usages answer the question, Why did you do it in that way?

So, the most common words to use with this pattern are way, manner, etc.

Compare these similar sentences:

Xue Mei spoke so that we would stop asking her questions.

The sales materials are presented at the end of the meetings so that the participants won't realize the meeting
is actually a sales presentation.

The part that comes after so... that... answers the question WHY.

10. equally well vs as well"
as well - means also
equally well - is used for comparision.

11. because is preferrable to Since is preferrable to being"

12. [B]Rather than is (usually) a conjunction, NOT a preposition; instead of is a preposition, NOT a conjunction.

13. Absolute phrase example

I chose A, which is the right answer, but I don't really understand why. Is A an absolute phrase?
For several decades after 1830, Paterson was among the fastest growing cities, its population nearly doubling every ten years.
a...
b. with nearly doubled population every ten years.
c. its population was almost twice as much every ten years.
d. every ten years its population was almost doubled
e. almost every ten years population was twice as much

Paterson was among the fastest growing cities, and its population was nearly doubling every ten years.

That's the main idea with absolute phrases, since they never include the conjunction or the verb. You should also know that when the -ing form or being is correct, it's because these words are in an absolute phrase;

Country X saw dramatic increases in many industries, with industry Y being the industry with the greatest increase.


14 Usage of likelihood
1. likelihood that something will happen
2. likelihood of something

Example
Likelihood that violence will errupt.
Likelihood of snowing today is low.

15 one of NOUN (this noun will always be plural) + PLURAL VERB

16 Great usually describes nouns which express feelings or qualities.
e.g. great admiration, great anger, in great detail

Large is often used with nouns concerning numbers and measurements. It is not usually used with uncountable nouns.

e.g. a large amount, a large number (of), a large population, a large proportion

17 Usage of Where and When"

[B]where can be used in the sense of whereas, as can while. However, if you have to choose between while and whereas, you should go with whereas (or where in this case) if while can be ambiguous in the sentence, since it can mean whereas or at the same time that.

Here's an example of a sentence in which while can have an ambiguous meaning:

Diana prefers to eat at McDonald's while Tomo eats at Burger King.

If while means although here, then we have the simple meaning of contrast--one prefers X, but the other prefers Y.

If while means at the same time that here, then we have a somewhat strange sentence that says that Diana enjoys eating at McD's when Tomo goes to Burger King. In other words, something like Diana will enjoy it only when Tomo is doing something else, kind of an illogical sentence.

18 equal vs equivalent"

The new resort hotel will serve 20,000 tourists at its maximum capacity, equaling the capacity of a large stadium.

(A) equaling the capacity of a large stadium

(B) which equals a large stadium

(C) which equals that of a large stadium's

(D) the equivalent of that of a large stadium's

(E) the equivalent of a large stadium's

Well, GMAT has written in one of their explanations that equal should be used only in its strictest sense, for example,
4 + 3 is equal to 5 + 2.

equivalent, GMAT says, is preferable when we are saying that two things are not entirely identical, but are [B]almost equal. For example, Country X spent $XX on something, equivalent to the GDP of Country Y.

19. [B]whether vs if"

A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers; the question is whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are trimmed.

(A) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are
(B) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one once their horns are
(C) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see rhinoceroses once the animals' horns have been
(D) if tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses once the animals' horns are
(E) if tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one after the animals' horns have been

The real focus of the question here is whether vs. if. There is a little rhyme to help you remember:

If you see [B]whether and if"... whether is better

Of course, this rhyme is just to help you remember, it doesn't explain the rule.

We use [B]if for conditions: I will help you if I can.

and for things that might happen:

If you need a hand, please let me know.

We use whether when we have two options:

We will have the picnic whether or not it rains. (Two options: rain/no rain.)

Another way to think of this is if we can add or not, then we MUST use whether. (Of course, you'll remember that GMAT does NOT like to add or not; GMAT considers the or not redundant.)

Furthermore, in this sentence

question... is...

we are missing a noun complement.

Strictly speaking, we should NOT use an adjective clause as a noun complement; we should use a noun clause.

You will recall that if can NEVER be used in noun clauses (only in adverb clauses), but whether CAN be used in noun clauses.


20. for all vs along with"

Second, for all means despite, and along with means in addition to. I'm sure you'll agree that the meanings are different, right?

21. Subjunctive rule

The preferred rule for GMAT is this:

subjunctive word (such as demand, suggest, recommend, require, order, mandate) + that + NOUN + BASE FORM of the VERB (e.g., be, go, stop, run, excel) i.e., the infinitive without the to part.

2) All five-hundred dollar and thousand-dollar bills were withdrawn from circulation in 1969, and this left the one-hundred dollar bill to be the highest denomination of currency.

a) and this left the one-hundred dollar bill to be the highest denomination of currency
b) an act which has left the hundred-dollar bill to be the highest crrency denomination.
c) leaving the highest denomination of currency to be the one-hundred dollar bill
d) leaving the one-hundred dollar bill as the highest denomination of currency.

this, which, that, and other pronouns MUST replace nouns, not sentences.

[B]this in A) and which B) refer to the entire sentence.


In A, this replaces the whole sentence All five-hundred dollar and thousand-dollar bills were withdrawn from circulation in 1969. If we choose D, we have a participial phrase, which GMAT allows to modify a sentence.

21 Quick rules:

because + SENTENCE

because of + NOUN

despite/in spite of + NOUN

due to should only be used as a complement (i.e., after a be-verb (yeah, stupid rule, but some people are adamant about it)) NOT as a preposition (i.e., NOT at the beginning of the sentence).

for as a subordinating conjunction is rare, but acceptable. I'd trust my ear on this one.

22 one or the other vs one or another

If the claims of coastal nations to 200-mile territorial seas were accepted on a worldwide basis, more than thirty percent of the worlds ocean area would come under the jurisdiction of one or other national states.

(A) one or other national states
(B) one or another national state
(C) one or the other national state
(D) some or another of the national states
(E) each and every national state


Generally, the other means the second one. In other words, we can only use the other one when we are talking about only two things, such as our eyes, feet, ears, hands, or legs.

For example, I have two sisters. One is a doctor, and the other one is an artist."

23. [B]who vs whom ( Conjuction )

First, many of who is WRONG; we need many of whom.
(Rule: quantifier + of + object.

Examples: some of whom, half of which, 44% of whom, etc.)

I saw two movies this weekend, both of them were good.

On first listen, this sounds correct, but it's not, for reasons that may seem at first hard to explain. However, if we realize that we have two sentences, I saw two movies this weekend and both of them were good, then we'll also realize that we must have a conjunction between them to join them (the basic rule of conjunctions and parallel structure).

The classic corrections (in descending order of likeliness of appearing as correct answers) are:

- I saw two movies this weekend; both of them were good. (joining two sentences with a semi-colon)
- I saw two movies this weekend, both of which were good. (using a relative pronoun (aka subordinating conjunction)
to join two sentences)
- I saw two movies this weekend, and both of them were good. (using a coordinating conjunction to join two sentences)

24. use of as such

Caesarea was Herods city, founded as a Romanized counterweight to Hebraic Jerusalem, and being such it was regarded with loathing by the devout.

(A) being such
(B) as such
(C) for this
(D) so
(E) so being

This sentence has format: founded as + n. , and as such + sentence

1. as such - because it is that thing
Example :I'm a teacher, and as such, I should try to help you.

2. as here is a preposition and must therefore be followed by a noun.

3. so is used to replace verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, but NOT nouns; we use such for nouns.

25. but not vs rather than"

Example -
Pucci is not a dog but a cat.
Pucci is a cat rather than a dog - means Puci has chosen to be a dog rather than cat - sounds terrible
I want a cat rather than a dog. - Shows preference.

26. [B]resulting from vs as a result of"

We should use resulting when we want to describe a noun, e.g.:

[B]The fire resulting from the earthquake caused a lot of damage.

In this sentence resulting tells us more about the fire.

Now let's look at how to use as a result of.

We should use as a result of when we want to establish a causal relationship between two things, e.g.:

As a result of the fire, many people had to stay in temporary shelters.

In this sentence, we are saying that the fire caused people to stay in temporary shelters.
Example :
The cheetah seems to be headed for extinction because, resulting from instensive inbreeding generations ago, the species has so little genetic variation that it is extremely vulnerable to environmental change.

A) ....
B) because, as a result of intensive inbreeding generations ago,

27. compare to vs compare with"
compare to - use when two things are alike
compare with - use when two things are not alike

28. The current administration, being worried over some foreign trade barriers being removed and our exports failing to increase as a result of deep cuts in the value of the dollars, has formed a group to study ways to sharpen our competitiveness.

A. being worried over some foreign trade barriers being removed and our exports failing
B. worrying over some foreign trade barriers being removed, also over the failure of our exports
C. worried about the removal of some foreign trade barriers and the failure of our exports
D. in that they were worried about the removal of some foreign trade barriers and also about the failure of our exports
E. because of its worry concerning the removal of some foreign trade barriers, also concerning the failure of our exports

Although C must be the right choice since it uses worried about idiomatically and does not have unnecessary wording, it is hard to understand how PRESENT perfect ("has formed") can be used with PAST simple ("worried about") in one sentence??? They are two different time planes !

[B]being worried over some foreign trade barriers being removed and our exports failing - is supposed to be a phrase modifying the noun Current administration can be converted to Participle phrase worried about the removal of some foreign trade barriers and the failure of our exports

Balancing a pizza with one hand and having gripped a six-pack carton of soft drinks with another, twenty-three year-old Alan, paused in front of a first floor flat in the colony.

A. Balancing a pizza with one hand and having gripped a six-pack carton of soft drinks with another
B. Having a balance of a pizza with one hand and gripping a six-pack of carton of soft drinks with the other
C. Balancing a pizza with one hand and gripping a pack of six soft drink carton with the other
D. Being balanced a pizza with one hand and gripping a six-pack carton of soft drinks with the another
E. Having balanced a pizza with one hand and having gripped a six-pack carton of soft drinks with the other

A and D - are wrong because of word another
B - is wrong because of having a balance of pizza"
C - is worng because of [B]pack of six soft drink carton vs a six-pack carton of soft drinks"

The rule to apply here is having + past participle

30. Usage of [B]that"

It is well known in the supermarket industry that how items are placed on shelves and how frequently
inventory turns over can be crucial to profits.[U]

[U]A panel concluded that malnutrition is the most serious health problem facing the third world countries, but that it can and will be eradicated with the assistance of developed countries.

The difference here is that the word [B]that is not present after the word and in the first sentence.

Let's say you have something like the following:

I know that you are very smart and that you are strong as well.

In this sentence, we have three things that are EXACTLY the same:

- that
- you
- are
Depending on the sentence, you might all or none of the repeated elements.

If the sentence is short and sweet, we can omit more stuff:

I know that you are very smart and strong.

If there's more stuff intervening, we might choose to add one of these elements to remind
the reader just what's parallel:

I know that you are very smart when it's later in the day and you've had your coffee and that you are strong as well.

In this case, the that serves to remind us just what part of the previous sentence the next part is going to parallel.


31. Usage of whether or not"

The Garcia government faces the greatest crisis of its mandate, and its political future after the next election depends on if it can restore the public's confidence and can move beyond the current political impasse in the Congress.

A if it can restore the public's confidence and can move beyond
B whether it can restore the public's confidence and move beyond
C the ability to restore the public's confidence and moving
D whether or not it can restore the public's confidence and be able to move beyond
E its capability for restoring the public's confidence and move beyond

Well, GMAT has said in their publications that whether or not is redundant, since whether
already includes the idea of two options; in other words, the exact same idea is expressed without or not.

32.

The guiding principles of the tax plan released by the Treasury Department could have even a greater significance for the economy than the particulars of the plan.

(A) even a greater significance for the economy than
(B) a significance that is even greater for the economy than
(C) even greater significance for the economy than have
(D) even greater significance for the economy than do
(E) a significance even greater for the economy than have

D is indeed best in SAE.

In SAE, we generally use do to replace [B]regular verbs, i.e., verbs that are not linking verbs, verbs that use modals, etc.

For example:

Megumi speaks Japanese better than I do.

But you already knew that, I'm sure.

Look at the following examples for something (perhaps) new:

Megumi has visited more countries than I have.

We can use have again because have is an auxiliary verb here.

Megumi has more skirts than I do.

Here, has is NOT an auxiliary verb, and in SAE, we cannot use the verb have in the second bit.

33. each other vs
the other[/B]

Q 2: The complex tax dispute between the Covered Bridge Mall and Harris Township is not likely to be adjudicated for several years, and, in the meantime, both sides are intent on creating difficulties for the other.

(A) both sides are intent on creating difficulties for the other
(B) both sides are intent on creating difficulties for each other
(C) each side is intent on creating difficulties for the other
(D) each side is intent on creating difficulties for one another
(E) the sides are both intent on creating difficulties for each other

The other issue is also important--the difference between each/the other and both/each other.

Use each when the parties are more separate, and use both when the parties are collaborating.
For example, each side was fighting the other sounds better than both sides were fighting each other, don't you think?
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Prepositional Phrases Clarified|Elimination of BEING| Absolute Phrases Clarified
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Re: One of the best notes in order to prepare you for SC. [#permalink] New post 26 Oct 2012, 10:27
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Re: One of the best notes in order to prepare you for SC.   [#permalink] 26 Oct 2012, 10:27
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