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The idea here is just notice the two sentences: ---- if A then B ----- if A only then B.
the first statement tell , if A occurs B will definetly occur, but doesn't say B cannot occur without A.
the second statement tells. if A occurs B will definetly occur, and also B cannot occur without A.
now among the answer choices: 1. if D then A: it might not necessarily be true.
2. If not B, then not C: again C can occur without B.
3. If not D, then not A. : perfect, because, if A wud have happened, B will happen, thereby C and subsequently D. so if D dint occur, then A wouldn't have
4. If D, then E. : out of score, E is no where in picture.
5. If not A, then not D. : again this is not necessarily true, because D can occur without C, or B or A.
Didnt you say that D can happen even if C doesnt happen, C can happen even without B happening; and B can happen without A happening?? Then how can you say that if D didnt happen, then A also didnt happen??
Read your explanations for C and E... i think you are mixing the reasoning.. and contradicting yourself... In choice E , you say---"If not A, then not D. : again this is not necessarily true, because D can occur without C, or B or A"
And In C you say----If not D, then not A. : perfect, because, if A wud have happened, B will happen, thereby C and subsequently D. so if D dint occur, then A wouldn't have..
Just to simplify things take 2 events say A and B. and lets say A means: it is raining, B means 'i will work from home.
So if A then B... means: if it raining, then I will work from home.
However, this doesn't mean that i will work from home only if it is raining, i can work from home, even on a very hot day... !! (i am a bit lazy person
At the same time, If i am not working from home... it means it is not raining. because, if it wud have been raining, I would have been working from home. (as stated in the statement above). Isn't it?
SO if 'A then B' means--- if 'not B then not A'.
Extend this logic to 4 events as in the original question stem. A---> B--->C-->D. so if D dint happen, C wudn't have, and if C dint happen B wudn't have, and finally if B dint happen then A wudnot have.
Hope this answers your query.
Further the answer choice 'E' is wrong becasue.... for the two events (A and B) it will lead to if not A then not B. so in my example, if it is not raining .. i will not work from home... and as i said earlier, i can work from home, because of any other reasons, say it is very hot today/ or i am a lazy person, or i hate my boss...
If D did not happen then C did not happen, because if C had happened D would have followed.
If C did not happen then B did not happen (same logic as above)
So, if B did not happen then A did not happen.
I will go with â€˜Câ€™
According to the statements if A =>B => C => D, so in other words whenever â€˜Aâ€™ occurs â€˜Dâ€™ is bound to happen, so if â€˜Dâ€™ did not happen, we can conclude that â€˜Aâ€™ did not happen as well because if â€˜Aâ€™ had happened â€˜Dâ€™ would have too.