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# If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set

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Senior Manager
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If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2009, 03:50
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Difficulty:

85% (hard)

Question Stats:

50% (02:15) correct 50% (01:28) wrong based on 369 sessions

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If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set tiebreak, the lower-ranked player always loses the tiebreak (and, therefore, the match). If Rafael, the second-ranked player, wins a tournament by beating Roger, the top-ranked player, then the match must not have included a fifth-set tiebreak.

Which of the following arguments most closely mimics the reasoning used in the above argument?
a) If a woman with a family history of twins gets pregnant three times, she will have one set of twins. Jennifer, who falls
into this category, had two sets of twins, so she must not have gotten pregnant exactly three times.
b) If a salesman sells more product than anyone else in a calendar year, then he will earn an all-expenses-paid
vacation. Joe earned an all-expense-paid vacation, so he must have sold more product than anyone else for the
year.
c) A newspaper can charge a 50% premium for ads if its circulation surpasses 100,000; if the circulation does not pass
100,000, therefore, the newspaper can't charge any kind of premium for ads.
d) If a student is in the top 10% of her class, she will earn a college scholarship. Anna is not in the top 10% of her class,
so she will not earn a scholarship.
e) All of the players on a football team receive a cash bonus if the team wins the Super Bowl. If quarterback Tom Brady
earned a cash bonus last year, he must have been a member of the winning Super Bowl team.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by JarvisR on 27 Jul 2015, 09:53, edited 1 time in total.
OA updated
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2009, 11:57
4
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Question:
A = fifth set tiebreak
B = low rank player lose

If rafael wins = not B
then no fifth set tiebreak = not A

If A then B, if not B then not A

a)
A = family history of twins get pregnant 3 times
B = one set of twins
Jennifer had two set of twins = not B
not have gotten pregnant three times = not A
If A then B, if not B then not A

b)
A = sells more product than anyone else
B = vacation
If A then B, if B then A
so out

c)
A = if circulation > 100k
If A then B, if not A then not B
also out

d)
A = top 10% in class
B = scholarship
If A then B, if not A then not B
out

e)
assumption is based on all the players receiving cash bonus and not just an individual
out
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2009, 11:04
1
KUDOS
IMO A

Whats the OA?
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2011, 01:24

Reasoning mode is if X happens, then Y happens. Since Y did not happen, so X too could not have happened. Only A is like this.
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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01 May 2011, 05:07
If A then B, if not B then not A

i got this right but took me 4:32 minutes, thanks for providing the template .
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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01 May 2011, 12:59
A
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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24 May 2011, 23:19
choice is between A,C and D.

C and D are exactly the same. A differs in the point that as the second seeded player wins the match,so too the mother has two sets of twins rather than not being in top 10% as in D or not selling past 100k mark.

Thus A scores at this.
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2011, 00:33
1
KUDOS
+1 A

Notice tha there is a flaw in the reasoning of the original argument:
The statistics of the past will determine what will happen in the future. But we know that that's not true.
The rest of the arguments don't have that flaw. Most of them have a cause-effect argument.
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2011, 02:59
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LevFin7S wrote:
Question:
A = fifth set tiebreak
B = low rank player lose

If rafael wins = not B
then no fifth set tiebreak = not A

If A then B, if not B then not A

a)
A = family history of twins get pregnant 3 times
B = one set of twins
Jennifer had two set of twins = not B
not have gotten pregnant three times = not A
If A then B, if not B then not A

b)
A = sells more product than anyone else
B = vacation
If A then B, if B then A
so out

c)
A = if circulation > 100k
If A then B, if not A then not B
also out

d)
A = top 10% in class
B = scholarship
If A then B, if not A then not B
out

e)
assumption is based on all the players receiving cash bonus and not just an individual
out

good explaination.... I choose A based on same logic
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2011, 15:15
That was tough...I understand why A is correct
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2011, 00:08
Definitely a tough one.

I went with C . .
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2011, 09:39
IMHO A, but I have spent almost 3 mins to this question ((
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2011, 02:06
The structure of the argument is

If, A [in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set tiebreak,] then B [the lower-ranked player always loses the tiebreak (and, therefore, the match)]. If NOT B [Rafael, the second-ranked player, wins a tournament by beating Roger, the top-ranked player,] then NOT A [then the match must not have included a fifth-set tiebreak.]

So, we are looking for a structure similar to If A then B. If not B, then not A.

4) If A [a student is in the top 10% of her class], then B [she will earn a college scholarship.] Not A [Anna is not in the top 10% of her class], then not B [so she will not earn a scholarship.]

Structure: If A then B. Not A then not B. Not what we are looking for.

Answer 1 most closely matches the structure If A then B. If not B, then not A.
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2014, 15:09
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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2015, 08:04
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2016, 11:43
here are the 2 relevant logic rules (according to De Morgan's laws)

1. not (x and y ) = (not x) or (not y)
2. not (x or y) = (not x) and (not y)

The 1st part of correct answer is: [Twins history] and [3 preg.] -> [1 set of twins]
the second part is: [twins history] and (not 1 set of twins) -> (not 3 preg) - this is logically incorrect.

This is true because:
1. not [1set of twins] -> not [twins history] or not [3 preg]
2. if X->y is given, the logical equivalent is x->y or (not y) -> (not x).
Re: If, in a tennis tournament, a match reaches a fifth-set   [#permalink] 26 Sep 2016, 11:43
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