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If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a

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If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a [#permalink] New post 10 Mar 2011, 10:05
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A
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E

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Question Stats:

36% (02:53) correct 64% (02:25) wrong based on 462 sessions
If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a
substantial contribution to the survival of the species,
then, and only then, will that mutation be favored in
natural selection. This process is subject to one proviso,
namely that the traits that were not favored, yet were
carried along by a trait that was favored, must not be
so negative as to annul the benefits of having the new,
favored trait.
If the statements above are true, each of the following
could be true EXCEPT:
(A) A species possesses a trait whose effects are all
neutral for the survival of that species.
(B) All the effects of some genetic mutations
contribute substantially to the survival of a
species.
(C) A species possesses a trait that reduces the
species’ survival potential.
(D) A genetic mutation that carries along several
negative traits is favored in natural selection.
(E) A genetic mutation whose effects are all neutral
to a species is favored in natural selection.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Tough one!! [#permalink] New post 10 Mar 2011, 10:15
I think this arg means - the genetic mutation is favored if the cumulative benefit of the effect is positive.

Only D and E left. It cannot be D since the cumulative benefit will be negative.
Hence E.

vjsharma25 wrote:
If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a
substantial contribution to the survival of the species,
then, and only then, will that mutation be favored in
natural selection. This process is subject to one proviso,
namely that the traits that were not favored, yet were
carried along by a trait that was favored, must not be
so negative as to annul the benefits of having the new,
favored trait.
If the statements above are true, each of the following
could be true EXCEPT:
(A) A species possesses a trait whose effects are all
neutral for the survival of that species.
(B) All the effects of some genetic mutations
contribute substantially to the survival of a
species.
(C) A species possesses a trait that reduces the
species’ survival potential.
(D) A genetic mutation that carries along several
negative traits is favored in natural selection.
(E) A genetic mutation whose effects are all neutral
to a species is favored in natural selection.
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Re: Tough one!! [#permalink] New post 10 Mar 2011, 12:58
+1 E

Tricky language.
Notice that there is an important difference between this LSAT question and a GMAT question.
This is a COULD be true question, while a GMAT question is usually a MUST be true question.
A big difference.
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Re: Tough one!! [#permalink] New post 10 Mar 2011, 21:19
How can A be true ?
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Re: Tough one!! [#permalink] New post 12 Mar 2011, 09:37
have the same doubt but as pointed out by metallicafan it is a 'could be true' q, tricky one.
any idea we get such questiosn on GMAT?
mundasingh123 wrote:
How can A be true ?

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Re: Tough one!! [#permalink] New post 12 Mar 2011, 09:47
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A has zero contradictions because of the word "possesses" a trait. Its untouched since the arg is based on "genetic mutations".

(A) A species possesses a trait whose effects are all
neutral for the survival of that species.
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Re: Tough one!! [#permalink] New post 12 Mar 2011, 13:55
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rohu27 wrote:
have the same doubt but as pointed out by metallicafan it is a 'could be true' q, tricky one.
any idea we get such questiosn on GMAT?
mundasingh123 wrote:
How can A be true ?


Hey, I think I deserve a kudos! 8-)
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Re: Tough one!! [#permalink] New post 03 May 2011, 09:54
E is pretty obvious here.
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Re: Tough one!! [#permalink] New post 17 May 2011, 00:11
between D and E, D also can be possible since the negative effect may not be so much as to annul the positive effect of a mutation.

E
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Re: Tough one!! [#permalink] New post 13 Jul 2011, 09:06
I could not understand how D can be true? can someone explain?
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Re: Tough one!! [#permalink] New post 14 Jul 2011, 00:30
same question . How D is true?
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Re: If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2012, 03:24
D is true in case that this same genetic mutation has also positive traits that overwhelm all the negative traits it carries.

E it is.
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Re: If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2012, 20:03
If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a substantial contribution to the survival of the species, then, and only then, will that mutation be favored in natural selection.

contradicts E: A genetic mutation whose effects are all neutral to a species is favored in natural selection.

Therefore E for me.

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Re: If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2012, 22:01
'D' is wrong
because

'traits must not be so negative as to annul the benefits of having the new,favored trait"

"A genetic mutation that carries along several
negative traits is favored in natural selection."
In option 'B' negative traits are favored in natural selection
but they should not be so negative
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Re: If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a [#permalink] New post 02 Sep 2012, 22:30
After a long thought over the options, Chose E.

Very tricky question.
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Re: If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a [#permalink] New post 20 Sep 2012, 15:33
I am writing my comprehension. Kindly correct me if I am wrong.
According to the question, the scientists are working on some GM, which should have a positive bearing (that is, which should contribute substantially to) on the survival of certain species. Then, the scientists will catch one of those species and add GM, so that any further populations have that GM naturally.

And further, the negative traits shall not worsen the positive effect, the other trait in the GM carries. Is my comprehension correct?
Now, let us see the options:-

A. I do not get this. How is this related to the argument in any manner? Because we do not know what trait a species carries. We only know about the trait that we are adding through GM. - ???? - So, because we cannot say anything, this may or may not be true.
B. All the effects can contribute substantially. A possibility that all the traits are positive. Can happen. So, cross out.
C. Now again, a species posses.... how do we know what trait a species possesses. --- ??? So, because we cannot say anything, this may or may not be true.
D. That carries along several negative traits, Ok. such that one trait is so positive to annul the effects of all the negative traits. Hence cross out
E. neutral - cannot happen because the effect of GM should be substantial - that is it has to be positive. Neither negative nor neutral. Hence this cannot happen certainly. - This is the correct answer.

Kindly let me know about my reasoning.!!! :roll:
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Re: If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a [#permalink] New post 27 Sep 2012, 17:23
Took me more than 2 min , i was confused between A and E because of the confusing language. However then i read closely and E is clear in opposition of what is stated in the 1st two lines.
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Re: If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a [#permalink] New post 27 Sep 2012, 19:22
vjsharma25 wrote:
If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a
substantial contribution to the survival of the species,
then, and only then, will that mutation be favored in
natural selection. This process is subject to one proviso,
namely that the traits that were not favored, yet were
carried along by a trait that was favored, must not be
so negative as to annul the benefits of having the new,
favored trait.
If the statements above are true, each of the following
could be true EXCEPT:
(A) A species possesses a trait whose effects are all
neutral for the survival of that species.
(B) All the effects of some genetic mutations
contribute substantially to the survival of a
species.
(C) A species possesses a trait that reduces the
species’ survival potential.
(D) A genetic mutation that carries along several
negative traits is favored in natural selection.
(E) A genetic mutation whose effects are all neutral
to a species is favored in natural selection.



Interesting question. Took me just under 2 minutes since it's a could be question, so I had to entertain all possible scenarios.

A: Nowhere does it say that a species cannot possess a trait whose effects are all neutral. The argument deals with mutations being favored in natural selection, not traits per se.
B: Sort of tricky. While a negative trait can be carried along as part of a mutation if it's not detrimental to the species' survival, it is certainly possible that there exists mutations whose effects are entirely positive.
C: Yes, a species can definitely possess a negative trait. However it will not be favored in natural selection as part of a mutation, but the stimulus does not rule out the possibility of a species possessing such a trait.
D: As long as the negative trait is not detrimental, it can be favored during natural selection as part of a mutation.
E: Correct answer. The first sentence explicitly states that one of the effets of a mutation has to contribute substantially to the survival of a species in order for it to be favored in natural selection. Thus, if its effects are all neutral, it cannot be favored.
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Re: If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a [#permalink] New post 27 Dec 2012, 23:10
Some LSAT questions are very similar to GMAT questions - but not this one. This one is almost pure formal logic. Your chances of seeing "if and only if" (here, "then and only then") in a GMAT question are extremely slim. If you really want to analyze this question (which I do NOT recommend if the GMAT is your goal), the key points are: (1) "A if and only if B" means BOTH "If A is true, then B is true" AND "If B is true, then A is true"; and (2) "Could be true EXCEPT" means that the right answer MUST be false if the paragraph is true, while any answer which MUST be true or CAN be true is WRONG. Applying point (1) to the paragraph tells us that if a mutation is favoured, then it must contribute substantially to survival. If this is true, then E has to be false; it says that a certain mutation was favoured which did NOT contribute to survival.
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Re: If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a [#permalink] New post 07 Jan 2013, 01:50
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vjsharma25 wrote:
If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a
substantial contribution to the survival of the species,
then, and only then, will that mutation be favored in
natural selection. This process is subject to one proviso,
namely that the traits that were not favored, yet were
carried along by a trait that was favored, must not be
so negative as to annul the benefits of having the new,
favored trait.
If the statements above are true, each of the following
could be true EXCEPT:
(A) A species possesses a trait whose effects are all
neutral for the survival of that species.
(B) All the effects of some genetic mutations
contribute substantially to the survival of a
species.
(C) A species possesses a trait that reduces the
species’ survival potential.
(D) A genetic mutation that carries along several
negative traits is favored in natural selection.
(E) A genetic mutation whose effects are all neutral
to a species is favored in natural selection.


A - could happen since the stimulus states nothing about having no such trait...
B - could happen...
C - could be true.... Some negative to annul the positive was mentioned.
D - could happen as long as it doesn't annul the benefits.. Or it is to so negative...
E - False. The stimulus states that the trait favored is the one with subs. effect...
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Re: If one of the effects of a genetic mutation makes a   [#permalink] 07 Jan 2013, 01:50
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