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If Sarah were a concert pianist for a major orchestra, she

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If Sarah were a concert pianist for a major orchestra, she [#permalink] New post 16 Feb 2009, 05:21
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If Sarah were a concert pianist for a major orchestra, she would be famous. She is not a concert pianist since she is not famous.
The conclusion above is unsound because the author does not consider that
(A) Sarah could be a famous actress.
(B) Sarah could be a harpist for a major orchestra.
(C) Sarah could be a pianist with a rock group.
(D) Sarah could be a concert pianist with a minor orchestra.
(E) Sarah could be famous for another reason.


Please explain your answer
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Re: CR - concert pianist [#permalink] New post 16 Feb 2009, 06:49
Hi janet1511,


Here's my explanation:
-------------------------
Premise 1: A person who is a concert pianist with a major orchestra is famous.
Premise 2: She is not famous.

Conclusion: She is not a concert pianist.

Let us solve this using Venn diagram. Consider a circle called 'Famous'. Another circle called 'major orchestra' (MAJ_ORCH). Let there be a third circle called 'minor orchestra' (MIN_ORCH).

Now according to premise 1, we can visualize the circle MAJ_ORCH completely inside the circle called 'Famous'. This is so because any person who is a concert pianist with a major orchestra IS famous. There is NO concert pianist with a major orchestra who is not famous. Everyone is!

Premise 1 does not say that 'A concert pianist who is NOT associated with a major orchestra cannot be famous'. Even they can be famous. We'll use this to show that option D was something that the author did not consider to arrive at the conclusion.

Now if we consider option D, we can safely think of a circle MIN_ORCH, which intersects (not overlaps) another circle Famous. This 'intersection' denotes that concert pianists who are working with 'minor orchestra' (MIN_ORCH) comprises 'Famous' & 'Not Famous' people.

Let Sarah be associated with 'minor orchestra' group. Now since premise 2 states that Sarah is not famous, she'll be a part of the circle MIN_ORCH, which is not common with the 'Famous' circle i.e., Sarah is a part of 'minor orchestra' and is NOT famous.


(A) Sarah could be a famous actress. ---> Not relevant. We should not change Sarah's occupation. Let her be pianist for the time being.

(B) Sarah could be a harpist for a major orchestra. ---> Not relevant. Why harpist? She is fine as a pianist.

(C) Sarah could be a pianist with a rock group. ---> So what? Even if she's with a rock group, how does it, in any way, make the conclusion unsound?

(D) Sarah could be a concert pianist with a minor orchestra. ---> Explained above

(E) Sarah could be famous for another reason. ---> Sarah is 'not' famous for any other reason as Premise 2 clearly rules this out. So, we can discard this out.


My choice is option D.

Hope that helps.


Regards,
Technext
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Re: CR - concert pianist [#permalink] New post 16 Feb 2009, 07:46
I totally agree with the answer choice and reasoning. Still, I would like to slightly shift the explanation in a way that seems easier to me to grasp.
Let Sarah be A and B - the set of all possible concert pianist ocupations (e.g. a concert pianist for a minor orchestra, a concert pianist for a major orchestra, a concert pianist for some other type of orchestra, etc.). Then, let b1 denote the quality of being a concert pianist for a major orchestra, b2 - a concert pianist for a minor orchestra, ... etc.
The premise can be depicted as If A is b1, then ---> famous (If Sarah were a concert pianist for a major orchestra, she would be famous).
Then, the conclusion made by the author could be desplayed as A is not B because A is not famous (She is not a concert pianist since she is not famous). By substituting the condition for the conclusion from If A is b1, then ---> famous for a portion of the conclusion in A is not B because A is not famous, that is famous, we have A is not B because A is not b1 or this could be rephrased as Sarah is not a concert pianist since she is not a concert pianist for a major orchestra, which is unsound. It is incorrect because for Sarah to belong into B she could also be b2 or any other element od B set. Therefore, the author's resoning is missing out on the point that she, for example, could be a concert pianist with a minor orchestra which is provided by D choice.
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Re: CR - concert pianist [#permalink] New post 16 Feb 2009, 09:48
cp for a Major O -> Famous (given)

Contrapostive is

~ Famous -> ~ cp for a Major O (derived from given)

Possible that she is still a CP but not for Major O

Hence D
Re: CR - concert pianist   [#permalink] 16 Feb 2009, 09:48
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