If the average of 5 positive integers is 40 and the difference between the largest and the smallest of these 5 numbers is 10, what is the maximum value possible for the largest of these 5 integers?
The average of 5 positive integers is 40 --> the sum of these 5 integers is 5*40=200;
The difference between the largest and the smallest of these 5 numbers is 10 --> let the smallest integer be x and the largest x+10;
Now, we want to maximize x+10.General rule for such kind of problems:
to maximize one quantity, minimize the others;
to minimize one quantity, maximize the others.
Hence, in order to maximize x+10 we should minimize all other terms, thus make them equal to the smallest integer x. We would have: x+x+x+x+(x+10)=200 --> x=38 --> x+10=48.
Hope it's clear.
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