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In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women

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In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 06 Sep 2009, 04:08
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In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and ruling that it was a form of price fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.

a) the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and
b) the supreme court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia, and
c) the supreme court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia,
d) a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the supreme court
e) when the supreme declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional,

Please answer with an explanation
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 01 May 2013, 23:27
sakshiag28 wrote:
In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and ruling that it was a form of price fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.

a) the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and
b) the supreme court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia, and
c) the supreme court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia,
d) a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the supreme court
e) when the supreme declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional,

Please answer with an explanation


I will answer by eliminating the options.

a) , and- What it is used for. To connect two clauses. Now if you look at what follows ,and is "ruling" which an indication that ,+ing form is required to show outcome of certain action.
b) eliminate for the same reason.
c) Correct
d) passive construction
e) the modifier when conveys that when supreme court declared a minimum wage something else also happened which is not the intended meaning.
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 11 Aug 2013, 00:03
Can someone provide a detailed analysis for this question. Thanks!
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 11 Aug 2013, 00:33
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone provide a detailed analysis for this question. Thanks!

In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and ruling that it was a form of price fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.

IF YOU READ THIS clearly you can see that ==>meaning coming out to be ==>SUPREME COURT DECLARED A MINIMUM WAGE....which is wrong as per the meaning ...actual context is that supreme court declared this wage as unconstitutional.
hence there is a modfier placement error. hence A .WRONG
MOREOVER placement of AND after comma makes complete independent clause but in actual context it is describing the previous clause.

a) the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and
WRONG
b) the supreme court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia, and
MEANING IS AWKWARD: AS UNCONSTITUTIONAL supreme court declared a minimum wage.....so WRONG
use OF AND is wrong
c) the supreme court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia,
CORRECT.
d) a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the supreme court
WRONG
PASSIVE VOICE.
ruling AFTER commma is modifying minimum wage hence wrong.
e) when the supreme declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional,
WRONG
this is FRAGMENT As the sentence doesnt seems to be complete.
moreover there is a modifier error same as A

hope it helps
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 11 Aug 2013, 01:34
In the non-underlined portion "it" refers to minimum wage?
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 11 Aug 2013, 10:37
Whenever you spot an and, please make sure the structure following the and is grammatically similar with something preceding the and (for the simple reason that and joins two or more entities).

In A, and B, the structure following the and is: (and) ruling that it was a form of price fixing
But there is nothing preceding the and that is grammatically similar to this structure.

So, A and B would have been better if the non-underlined portion had: ..and ruled.. (and not ..and ruling..), because in that case the portions before and after and would have been grammatically similar: ...the supreme court declared...and ruled...

Reiterating, the structure in A and B: ...the supreme court declared...and ruling... is not a grammatically parallel structure.
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 22 Feb 2014, 15:54
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sakshiag28 wrote:
In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and ruling that it was a form of price fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.

A) the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and
B) the supreme court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia, and
C) the supreme court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia,
D) a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the supreme court
E) when the supreme declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional,

kinjiGC wrote:
Hi Mike,
Can you please explain this OG
Thanks, Kinjal

Dear Kinjal,
I'm happy to respond. :-) Here's my analysis.

Split #1: the idiom for "declare." The word declare idiomatically does not take a preposition --- the correct idiom is simply "to declare X Y", where X is some noun and Y is some judgement.
... to declare the assailant guilty ...
... to declare the new discovery invalid ...
... to declare the soup delicious ...

There is no preposition between the noun and the judgement. Putting the preposition "as" into this structure is incorrect:
... to declare the assailant as guilty ...
Every answer choice with the word "as" before the word "unconstitutional" makes this same mistake. On the basis of this split, we immediately can eliminate choices (A), (B), and (E). (Each one of those also has other problems!!)

After one split, we are down to only two choices. Choices (C) & (D) are both grammatically and idiomatically correct. The profound difference is in Rhetorical Construction. For more on that, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/rhetorical ... orrection/
Choice (C) is strong, direct, sleek, and powerful. Choice (D) is passive, indirect, flaccid, and mealy-mouthed. The choice between them is stark. Choice (C) is much better, and is clearly the best answer.

Notice that the modifying phrase beginning with the word "ruling" is a verb modifier, a.k.a. an adverbial phrase. Unlike noun modifiers, these are not subject to the Touch Rule, so we don't have to contort the first half of the sentence into a grammatical pretzel just so that the words "supreme court" are touching that modifier. For more on the Touch Rule, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/modifiers- ... orrection/

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2014, 11:11
mikemcgarry wrote:
sakshiag28 wrote:
In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and ruling that it was a form of price fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.

A) the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and
B) the supreme court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia, and
C) the supreme court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia,
D) a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the supreme court
E) when the supreme declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional,

kinjiGC wrote:
Hi Mike,
Can you please explain this OG
Thanks, Kinjal

Dear Kinjal,
I'm happy to respond. :-) Here's my analysis.

Split #1: the idiom for "declare." The word declare idiomatically does not take a preposition --- the correct idiom is simply "to declare X Y", where X is some noun and Y is some judgement.
... to declare the assailant guilty ...
... to declare the new discovery invalid ...
... to declare the soup delicious ...

There is no preposition between the noun and the judgement. Putting the preposition "as" into this structure is incorrect:
... to declare the assailant as guilty ...
Every answer choice with the word "as" before the word "unconstitutional" makes this same mistake. On the basis of this split, we immediately can eliminate choices (A), (B), and (E). (Each one of those also has other problems!!)

After one split, we are down to only two choices. Choices (C) & (D) are both grammatically and idiomatically correct. The profound difference is in Rhetorical Construction. For more on that, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/rhetorical ... orrection/
Choice (C) is strong, direct, sleek, and powerful. Choice (D) is passive, indirect, flaccid, and mealy-mouthed. The choice between them is stark. Choice (C) is much better, and is clearly the best answer.

Notice that the modifying phrase beginning with the word "ruling" is a verb modifier, a.k.a. an adverbial phrase. Unlike noun modifiers, these are not subject to the Touch Rule, so we don't have to contort the first half of the sentence into a grammatical pretzel just so that the words "supreme court" are touching that modifier. For more on the Touch Rule, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/modifiers- ... orrection/

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Hi Mike,

In answer choice C, isn't it idiomatically incorrect? Declared a X(minimum wage) as Y(unconstitutional)?

thanks
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2014, 14:35
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russ9 wrote:
Hi Mike,

In answer choice C, isn't it idiomatically incorrect? Declared a X(minimum wage) as Y(unconstitutional)?

thanks

Dear russ9
With all due respect, I don't believe the word "as" even appears in choice (C).

You are perfectly correct that declare X as Y would be idiomatically incorrect.

Mike :-)
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 26 Jun 2014, 22:54
mikemcgarry wrote:
sakshiag28 wrote:
In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and ruling that it was a form of price fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.

A) the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional, and
B) the supreme court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia, and
C) the supreme court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia,
D) a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the supreme court
E) when the supreme declared a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia as unconstitutional,

kinjiGC wrote:
Hi Mike,
Can you please explain this OG
Thanks, Kinjal

Dear Kinjal,
I'm happy to respond. :-) Here's my analysis.

Split #1: the idiom for "declare." The word declare idiomatically does not take a preposition --- the correct idiom is simply "to declare X Y", where X is some noun and Y is some judgement.
... to declare the assailant guilty ...
... to declare the new discovery invalid ...
... to declare the soup delicious ...

There is no preposition between the noun and the judgement. Putting the preposition "as" into this structure is incorrect:
... to declare the assailant as guilty ...
Every answer choice with the word "as" before the word "unconstitutional" makes this same mistake. On the basis of this split, we immediately can eliminate choices (A), (B), and (E). (Each one of those also has other problems!!)

After one split, we are down to only two choices. Choices (C) & (D) are both grammatically and idiomatically correct. The profound difference is in Rhetorical Construction. For more on that, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/rhetorical ... orrection/
Choice (C) is strong, direct, sleek, and powerful. Choice (D) is passive, indirect, flaccid, and mealy-mouthed. The choice between them is stark. Choice (C) is much better, and is clearly the best answer.

Notice that the modifying phrase beginning with the word "ruling" is a verb modifier, a.k.a. an adverbial phrase. Unlike noun modifiers, these are not subject to the Touch Rule, so we don't have to contort the first half of the sentence into a grammatical pretzel just so that the words "supreme court" are touching that modifier. For more on the Touch Rule, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/modifiers- ... orrection/

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Hi Mike as always your explanation are crisp. Out of curiosity , which verb is the above highlighted verb modifier referring to ?
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 27 Jun 2014, 10:41
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himanshujovi wrote:
Hi Mike as always your explanation are crisp. Out of curiosity , which verb is the above highlighted verb modifier referring to ?

Dear himanshujovi,
Thank you for your kind words. I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's the OA version:
In 1923, the supreme court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the district of Columbia, ruling that it was a form of price fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.
The participle "ruling" is a verb-modifier, or one might say a "clause modifier" --- there's actually not a sharp distinction between a verb modifier and a clause modifier. It provides the content of the court's decision, the effect of their action. This is typical for a verb modifier.
I told Kevin he was very smart, making him feel good about himself.
The bond market fell precipitously, sending stocks into a panic.
At Austerlitz, Napoleon crushed the Third Coalition, bringing an end to the Holy Roman Empire.
In each one, the first part, in green, is an independent clause, and the second part, in purple, is a verb-modifier giving the effect of the action, the result.

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 28 Jun 2014, 02:16
Hi Mike,

The idiom "Declared A B" is equivalent to "Consider A B", isn't it? Are there any other words that run along the same lines?
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women [#permalink] New post 28 Jun 2014, 14:51
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pretzel wrote:
Hi Mike,

The idiom "Declared A B" is equivalent to "Consider A B", isn't it? Are there any other words that run along the same lines?

Dear pretzel,
I'm happy to respond. :-) In terms of common words, likely to appear on the GMAT, there are no other words in this pattern. BTW, here are some free GMAT Idiom Flashcards:
https://gmat.magoosh.com/flashcards/idioms
Mike :-)
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Re: In 1923, the supreme court declared a minimum wage for women   [#permalink] 28 Jun 2014, 14:51
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