In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding

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In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2010, 09:48
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In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks
among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys
were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of
“coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant
individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that,
for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in
rats.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys
living in uncrowded conditions.
B. In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid
dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any
other monkeys do.
D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more
attacks than the other monkeys were.
E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior
rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2010, 13:06
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What we have here is a "strengthen the conclusion" question. To strengthen a conclusion, you need to make one of the argument's underlying assumptions into a supporting premise by stating it explicitly. This argument is essentially:

1. Crowding leads to aggression in rats.
2. However, crowding does NOT lead to aggression in rhesus monkeys.
3. Therefore, crowding probably does NOT lead to aggression in monkeys the way it does in rats.

Statements 1 and 2 are premises. Statement 3 is our conclusion. The question you want to ask yourself is: "What assumption are they making in between statements 2 and 3?" That assumption is going to be the answer to this type of question.

In this example, you can't assume that the behavior of Rhesus monkeys would reflect the behavior of other monkeys. Although we could probably justify this statement if we watch a lot of Discovery Channel, we can't use that external knowledge on the GMAT. Answer choice C is a version of this assumption; it makes explicit the fact that rhesus monkeys are actually more aggressive than other monkeys. The natural next step of this chain of logic is that if crowding doesn't make rhesus monkeys act aggressively, it probably doesn't make any other monkeys act aggressively.

As a result, C is the best way to strengthen this conclusion. Hope that's helpful!

Brett
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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2010, 00:06
Thanks Brett. I was looking for an answer that stated something about the study on other types of monkeys. So i struggled to find the right answer.
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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2010, 00:20
(C) definately makes sense and strengthen the argument. But I am wondering that (A) also strengthens the argument by saying that all the "cpoing" behaviours are found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions. Because if that is not the case, it simply means that the attacking nature has got increased.

@Brett, can you please through some light on this?
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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2010, 05:57
A good question....I pre-phased that rhesus monkeys must represent all other monkey types. If this would have been the case, it strengthens the argument considerably.
clear +1 for C
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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2010, 06:34
syog,

(A) gives us more information about rhesus monkeys: In crowded conditions, they cope in specific ways other than becoming aggressive. However, this only helps us better understand this particular species of monkey. We still have no idea whether this species is typical.

The goal with strengthening the conclusion questions is to understand which does the MOST to strengthen the conclusion. With (C) we can clearly see the strengthening. With (A) we have to tell ourselves a story to strengthen the argument: "Rhesus monkeys don't show aggression. They don't show aggression because they have other ways of coping, such as acting submissive. Since the rhesus monkey has an alternative to aggression, other monkeys probably do also."

Notice how this "story" we have to tell ourselves contains its own assumptions that still need to be overcome. Thus, although (A) might strengthen a bit, it doesn't strengthen the most.

Does that help?

Brett
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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2010, 10:24
Yes, it does.

Thanks a lot Brett!
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2014, 19:52
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2014, 19:08
OK - Gmat bot, here's we go.

Crowding of rats -> increased number of attacks for rats. However, crowding of monkeys ->(~) does not increase number of attacks for monkeys. Thus, strengthening any part of the causal relationship will strengthen the argument.

A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys
living in uncrowded conditions.
Reversing the causal logic does not strengthen the argument. The claim in fact weakens the argument.

B. In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid
dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
Weakens the conclusion because the original conclusion about rats was shown to be false.

C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any
other monkeys do.
Correct. If monkeys respond to a wider range of stimuli and the number of attacks did not increase, the conclusion is expanded, thus further strengthened.

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more
attacks than the other monkeys were.
Tangential to the main issue, and out of scope.

E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior
rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.
Out of scope.

IMO C
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2014, 04:04
1. Crowding leads to aggression in rats.
2. However, crowding does NOT lead to aggression in rhesus monkeys.
3. Therefore, crowding probably does NOT lead to aggression in monkeys the way it does in rats.

above three facts are stated above : if you look at option C it says monkey has wider range to show aggression but they are not showing it - means probability is less of attacking behavior +1C

Hope this helps
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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21 May 2015, 03:35
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks
among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys
were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of
“coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant
individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that,
for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in
rats.
The conclusion is that since rhesus monkeys do not exhibit aggression in crowded conditions as rats do, other species do not either.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys
living in uncrowded conditions. This implies that the coping behavior is not a result of the crowding and could weaken the argument.
(B) In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid
dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions. Says nothing about monkeys
(C) Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any
other monkeys do.
If rhesus monkeys are more sensitive to the stimuli that induces aggression and still do not exhibit aggression, other monkey species are less likely to show aggression.
(D) Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more
attacks than the other monkeys were. Doesn't make a comparison from species to species.
(E) Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior
rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.The application of coping behavior to other situations is not relevant.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2016, 11:05
I dont get how C is the answer... The conclusion here is about increase in aggression due to crowding as compared to that of rats.. Other species of monkeys may not respond aggressively to a wider range of stimuli but they could still respond quite aggressively to overcrowding, probably as aggressively as a rat does..

Please let me know where I am going wrong..

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In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2016, 19:14
rs47 wrote:
I dont get how C is the answer... The conclusion here is about increase in aggression due to crowding as compared to that of rats.. Other species of monkeys may not respond aggressively to a wider range of stimuli but they could still respond quite aggressively to overcrowding, probably as aggressively as a rat does..

Please let me know where I am going wrong..

Hi rs47,

Let me clarify your doubt here:

Desired flow of thoughts
1. We know that Rhesus monkeys do not act aggressively as the the rats do.
2. Rhesus monkeys are the most aggressive in nature (this is what option C says)
3. Rhesus monkeys do not become aggressive in over crowded conditions

4. Sine Rhesus monkeys who are the most aggressive of all the monkey species, we can say that other species will also not beome aggresive.
(The final conclusion including the correct assumption)

Does this help?
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Last edited by OptimusPrepJanielle on 12 Mar 2016, 23:50, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2016, 22:20
Hi OptimusPrepJanielle, thanks a lot for the response.. Just a small query, how did you arrive at the following premise?

"2. Rhesus monkeys are the most aggressive in nature"

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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2016, 23:48
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rs47 wrote:
Hi OptimusPrepJanielle, thanks a lot for the response.. Just a small query, how did you arrive at the following premise?

"2. Rhesus monkeys are the most aggressive in nature"

Hi rs47,

I think my language made you misunderstand my response. Sorry for that.
The points 1 2 and 3 are the flow of thoughts (taking into account the option C) which I have written before hand and then 4th point restates the assumption.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding   [#permalink] 12 Mar 2016, 23:48
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