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In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women's University in Seoul,

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In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women's University in Seoul, [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2011, 23:10
In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University in
Seoul, Korea, announced the opening of the first
women’s studies program in Asia. Few academic
programs have ever received such public attention. In
(5) broadcast debates, critics dismissed the program as a
betrayal of national identity, an imitation of Western
ideas, and a distraction from the real task of national
unification and economic development. Even supporters
underestimated the program ; they thought it would be
(10) merely another of the many Western ideas that had
already proved useful in Asian culture, akin to airlines,
electricity, and the assembly line. The founders of the
program, however, realized that neither view was
correct. They had some reservations about the appli-
(15) cability of Western feminist theories to the role of
women in Asia and felt that such theories should be
closely examined. Their approach has thus far yielded
important critiques of Western theory, informed by the
special experience of Asian women.
(20) For instance, like the Western feminist critique of the
Freudian model of the human psyche, the Korean critique finds Freudian theory culture-bound, but in
ways different from those cited by Western theorists.
The Korean theorists claim that Freudian theory
(25) assumes the universality of the Western nuclear, male-
headed family and focuses on the personality formation
of the individual, independent of society, An analysis
based on such assumptions could be valid for a highly
competitive, individualistic society. In the Freudian
(30) family drama, family members are assumed to be
engaged in a Darwinian struggle against each other—
father against son and sibling against sibling. Such a
concept of projects the competitive model of Western
society onto human personalities. But in the Asian
(35) concept of personality there is no ideal attached to indi
vidualism or to the independent self. The Western model
of personality development does not explain major char-
acteristics of the Korean personality, which is social and
group-centered. The “self” is a social being defined by
(40) and acting in a group, and the well-being of both men
and women is determined by the equilibrium of the
group, not by individual self-assertion. The ideal is one
of interdependency.
In such a context, what is recognized as “depen-
(45) dency” in Western psychiatric terms is not, in Korean
terms, an admission of weakness or failure. All this bears
directly on the Asian perception of men’s and women’s
psychology because men are also “ dependent”, In
Korean culture, men cry and otherwise easily show their
(50) emotions, something that might be considered a betrayal
of masculinity in Western culture. In the kinship-based
society of Korea, four generations may live in the same
house, which means that people can be sons and daugh-
ters all their lives, whereas in Western culture, the roles
of husband and son, wife and daughter, are often incom-
patible.

1. Which of the following best summarizes the content of
the passage?
(A) A critique of a particular women’s studies program
(B) A report of work in social theory done by a
particular women’s studies program
(C) An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses
of a particular women’s studies program
(D) An analysis of the philosophy underlying
women’s studies programs
(E) An abbreviated history of Korean women’s
studies programs

2. It can be inferred from the passage that Korean
scholars in the field of women’s studies undertook
an analysis of Freudian theory as a response to
which of the following?
(A) Attacks by critics of the Ewha women’s studies
program
(B) The superficiality of earlier critiques of Freudian
theory
(C) The popularity of Freud in Korean psychiatric
circles
(D) Their desire to encourage Korean scholars to
adopt the Freudian model
(E) Their assessment of the relevance and limitations of
Western feminist theory with respect to Korean
culture

3. Which of the following conclusions about the
introduction of Western ideas to Korean society can be
supported by information contained in the passage?
(A) Except for technological innovations, few Western
ideas have been successfully transplanted into
Korean society.
(B) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society
is viewed by some Koreans as a challenge to
Korean identity.
(C) The development of the Korean economy depends
heavily on the development of new academic
programs modeled after Western programs.
(D) The extent to which Western ideas must be adapted
for acceptance by Korean society is minimal.
(E) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society
accelerated after 1977.

4. It can be inferred from the passage that the broadcast
media in Korea considered the establishment of the
Ewha women’s studies program
(A) praiseworthy
(B) insignificant
(C) newsworthy
(D) imitative
(E) incomprehensible

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the position
taken by some of the supporters of the Ewha women’s
studies program was problematic to the founders of the
program because those supporters
(A) assumed that the program would be based on the
uncritical adoption of Western theory
(B) failed to show concern for the issues of national
unification and economic development
(C) were unfamiliar with Western feminist theory
(D) were not themselves scholars in the field of
women’s studies
(E) accepted the universality of Freudian theory

6. Which of the following statements is most consistent
with the view of personality development held by the
Ewha women’s studies group?
(A) Personality development occurs in identifiable
stages, beginning with dependency in childhood
and ending with independence in adulthood.
(B) Any theory of personality development, in order
to be valid, must be universal.
(C) Personality development is influenced by the
characteristics of the society in which a person
lives.
(D) Personality development is hindered if a person
is not permitted to be independent.
(E) No theory of personality development can account
for the differences between Korean and Western
culture.

7. Which of the following statements about the Western
feminist critique of Freudian theory can be supported
by information contained in the passage?
(A) It recognizes the influence of Western culture on
Freudian theory.
(B) It was written after 1977.
(C) It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear,
male-headed family.
(D) It challenges Freud’s analysis of the role of
daughters in Western society.
(E) It fails to address the issue of competitiveness in
Western society.

8. According to the passage, critics of the Ewha women’s
studies program cited the program as a threat to which
of the following?
Ⅰ. National identity
Ⅱ. National unification
Ⅲ. Economic development
Ⅳ.Family integrity
(A) Ⅰ only
(B) Ⅰ and Ⅱ only
(C) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ only
(D) Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ only
(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ, and Ⅳ
[Reveal] Spoiler:
BEBCACEC
In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women's University in Seoul,   [#permalink] 26 Sep 2011, 23:10
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