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# In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent

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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2013, 08:42
E is wrong because

"was" is wrong. fact which has no time is said, present tense is needed.

and because

the pattern

one of the nounS that ARE

is idiom .
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2013, 10:35
Bumping for review and further discussion*.

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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2013, 07:13
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

I also got the answer as A. Want to make sure whether my logic is correct.

A) Correct
B) The sentence as a whole talks about the patent system. Hence use of which(non-essential modifier) is appropriate but introduces a parallelism error with and it is
C) namely, it was an.. makes the construction awkward.
D) Removing the fluff we get:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws ,an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics
Creates a run-on sentence
E) I have a doubt here. According to me, the use of that was is correct and also it maintains the parallel structure. Also that correctly modifies the one of the laws. What does first made in 1845 modify? (btw IMO it modifies observation correctly). So Why is this option wrong?

I marked this option as the answer using the following rule, the topic of discussion in the sentence is testifying of Richard Stallman, the use of that.. introduces a restrictive clause. Am I correct?

Also if one of the option would have been something as below then what would be the answer?

laws, which was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Can anyone or any expert help me out with this?
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2014, 20:57
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2014, 05:16
This is a very good question on SVA and Parallelism.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2015, 12:48
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

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Video Explanations:

B - 'which' refers to plural 'laws', but has a singular verb 'was'
C - The sentences/clauses are not connected properly
D - Same as C
E - 'that' refers to plural 'laws', but has a singular verb 'was'

Hence A is right
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2015, 00:16
gmat2015p wrote:
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

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Video Explanations:

B - 'which' refers to plural 'laws', but has a singular verb 'was'
C - The sentences/clauses are not connected properly
D - Same as C
E - 'that' refers to plural 'laws', but has a singular verb 'was'

Hence A is right

Hi,
If 'which' was referring to 'laws' in option B, then in option A, the modifier - 'an observation.....' also modifies laws. If in that case - 'an observation' cannot refer to 'laws'.
What am I missing here? Please help!
I humbly request @e-gmat / mikemcgarry to share your views.
Thanks!
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2015, 22:38
Hi E-GMAT,

i have a doubt related to the sentence structure. The opening sentence is an prepositional phrase ,"In 1995 Richard Stallman". So How could Richard Stallman can be the subject of the verb "testified". Although the other options were stands incorrect.

Thanks
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2015, 05:00
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

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Video Explanations:

b) ..1845 and it is ... : a dependent clause starting here without a proper connector...
c) laws, namely, it was an observation .... : again I see a dependent clause starting here with "it was .." without a proper connector - namely cannot be a clause connector
d) antecedent to "it" is suspect - one of the laws? observation ? current ?
e) try hiding the non-essential modifier "first made in 1845" the sentence reads : observation about electric current and is now included in every text book ... ; now included should've been parallel to first made in 1845 , not with "observation about electric current"
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2015, 07:43
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

i have a doubt related to the sentence structure. The opening sentence is an prepositional phrase ,"In 1995 Richard Stallman". So How could Richard Stallman can be the subject of the verb "testified". Although the other options were stands incorrect.

Thanks
Nitin Singh

@Nitanika19

the prepositional phrase is "In 1995" - Richard Stallman starts after the prepositional phrase and not part of it.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2015, 07:47
Johnjojop wrote:
gmat2015p wrote:
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

Find All Official Guide Questions

Video Explanations:

B - 'which' refers to plural 'laws', but has a singular verb 'was'
C - The sentences/clauses are not connected properly
D - Same as C
E - 'that' refers to plural 'laws', but has a singular verb 'was'

Hence A is right

Hi,
If 'which' was referring to 'laws' in option B, then in option A, the modifier - 'an observation.....' also modifies laws. If in that case - 'an observation' cannot refer to 'laws'.
What am I missing here? Please help!
I humbly request @e-gmat / mikemcgarry to share your views.
Thanks!

which refers to "one of Kirchoff's Laws" --> which can jump over a prepositional phrase modifying a noun ; essentially which can modify a preceding noun phrase.
observation also refers to "one of Kirchoff's Laws"
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2015, 07:24
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

>> I was down to A and D - because in the underlined part - we are describing a law/laws - which is/are still valid, thus past usage is incorrect. However, OA does not mention this particular aspect in their answer explanation. any thoughts?????
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2016, 08:24
Hello guys,I fill D as correct. If I am wrong ,please,explain
Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent   [#permalink] 25 Jan 2016, 08:24

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# In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent

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