In a 1918 editorial, W.E.B. Du Bois advised African
Americans to stop agitating for equality and to
proclaim their solidarity with White Americans for
the duration of the First World War. The editorial
surprised many African Americans who viewed
Du Bois as an uncompromising African American
leader and a chief opponent of the accommodationist
tactics urged by Booker T.Washington. In fact,
however, Du Bois often shifted positions along the
continuum between Washington and
confrontationists such as William Trotter. In 1895,
when Washington called on African Americans to
concentrate on improving their communities instead
of opposing discrimination and agitating for political
rights, Du Bois praised Washington’s speech. In
1903, however, Du Bois aligned himself with Trotter,
Washington’s militant opponent, less for ideological
reasons than because Trotter had described to him
Washington’s efforts to silence those in the African
American press who opposed Washington’s
Du Bois's wartime position thus reflected not a
change in his long-term goals but rather a
pragmatic response in the face of social pressure:
government officials had threatened African
American journalists with censorship if they
continued to voice grievances. Furthermore,
Du Bois believed that African Americans’
contributions to past war efforts had brought them
some legal and political advances. Du Bois’s
accommodationism did not last, however. Upon
learning of systematic discrimination experienced
by African Americans in the military, he called on
them to “return fighting” from the war.
Q1 :- The passage is primarily concerned with
A. identifying historical circumstances that led Du Bois to alter his long-term goals.
B. defining “accommodationism” and showing how Du Bois used this strategy to achieve certain goals
C. accounting for a particular position adopted by Du Bois during the First World War.
D. contesting the view that Du Bois was significantly influenced by either Washington or Trotter
E. assessing the effectiveness of a strategy that Du Bois urged African Americans to adopt
Q2 :- The passage indicates which of the following about Du Bois's attitude toward Washington ?
A. It underwent a shift during the First World War as Du Bois became more sympathetic with Trotter's views.
B. It underwent a shift in 1903 for reasons other than Du Bois's disagreement with Washington's accommodationist views.
C. It underwent a shift as Du Bois made a long-term commitment to the strategy of accommodation.
D. It remained consistently positive even though Du Bois disagreed with Washington's efforts to control the African American press.
E. It was shaped primarily by Du Bois's appreciation of Washington's pragmatic approach to the advancement of the interests of African Americans.
Q3 :- The passage suggests which of the following about the contributions of African Americans to the United States war effort during the First World War ?
A. The contributions were made largely in response to Du Bois's 1918 editorial.
B. The contributions had much the same effect as African Americans' contributions to previous wars.
C. The contributions did not end discrimination against African Americans in the military.
D. The contributions were made in protest against Trotter's confrontationist tactics.
E. The contributions were made primarily by civil rights activists who returned to activism after the war.
Q4 :- The author of the passage refers to Washington's call to African Americans in 1895 primarily in order to
A. identify Du Bois's characteristics position on the continuum between accommodationism and confrontationism
B. explain why Du Bois was sympathetic with Washington's views in 1895
C. clarify how Trotter's views differed from those of Washington in 1895
D. support an assertion about Du Bois's tendency to shift his political positions
E. dismiss the claim that Du Bois's position in his 1918 editorial was consistent with his previous views
Q5 :- According to the passage, which of the following is true of the strategy that Du Bois's 1918 editorial urged African Americans to adopt during the First World War ?
A. It was a strategy that Du Bois had consistently rejected in the past.
B. It represented a compromise between Du Bois's own views and those of Trotter.
C. It represented a significant redefinition of the long-term goals Du Bois held prior to the war.
D. It was advocated by Du Bois in response to his recognition of the discrimination faced by African Americans during the war.
E. It was advocated by Du Bois in part because of his historical knowledge of gains African Americans had made during past wars.