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In a famous experiment by Pavlov, when a dog smelled food, [#permalink]
16 Feb 2005, 03:46
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In a famous experiment by Pavlov, when a dog smelled food, it salivated. Subsequently, a bell was rung whenever food was placed near the dog. After a number of trials, only the bell was rung, whereupon the dog would salivate even though no food was present.
Which of the following conclusions may be drawn from the above experiment?
(A)Dogs are easily fooled.
(B)Dogs are motivated only by the sound of a bell
(C)The ringing of a bell was associated with food
(D)A conclusion cannot be reached on the basis of one experiment
(B) Dogs are motivated only by the sound of a bell
The argument NEVER says so or implies such. It rather points out that a bell was rung whenever food was placed near the dog. Rather than the sound of a bell, the signal may just have been the sound of a drum beat, or anything else. As a result, the 'only' used in choice B is way too extreme.