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In a new book about the antiparty feeling of the early [#permalink]
29 Mar 2014, 15:31
In a new book about the antiparty feeling of the early political leaders of the United States, Ralph Ketcham argues that the first six Presidents differed decisively from later Presidents because the first six held values inherited from the classical humanist tradition of eighteenth-century England. In this view, government was designed not to satisfy the private desires of the people but to make them better citizens; this tradition stressed the disinterested devotion of political leaders to the public good. Justice, wisdom, and courage were more important qualities in a leader than the ability to organize voters and win elections. Indeed, leaders were supposed to be called to office rather than to run for office. And if they took up the burdens of public office with a sense of duty, leaders also believed that such offices were naturally their due because of their social preeminence or their contributions to the country. Given this classical conception of leadership, it is not surprising that the first six Presidents condemned political parties. Parties were partial by definition, self-interested, and therefore serving something other than the transcendent public good.
Even during the first presidency (Washington's), however, the classical conception of virtuous leadership was being undermined by commercial forces that had been gathering since at least the beginning of the eighteenth century. Commerce--its profit-making, its self-interestedness, its individualism--became the enemy of these classical ideals. Although Ketcham does not picture the struggle in quite this way, he does rightly see Jackson's tenure (the seventh presidency) as the culmination of the acceptance of party, commerce, and individualism. For the Jacksonians, nonpartisanship lost its relevance, and under the direction of Van Buren, party gained a new legitimacy. The classical ideals of the first six Presidents became identified with a privileged aristocracy, an aristocracy that had to be overcome in order to allow competition between opposing political interests. Ketcham is so strongly committed to justifying the classical ideals, however, that he underestimates the advantages of their decline. For example, the classical conception of leadership was incompatible with our modern notion of the freedoms of speech and press, freedoms intimately associated with the legitimacy of opposing political parties.
Q1 The passage is primarily concerned with (A) describing and comparing two theories about the early history of the United States (B) describing and analyzing an argument about the early history of the United States (C) discussing new evidence that qualifies a theory about the early history of the United States (D) refuting a theory about political leadership in the United States (E) resolving an ambiguity in an argument about political leadership in the United States
Q2 It can be inferred that the author of the passage would be most likely to agree that modern views of the freedoms of speech and press are A) values closely associated with the beliefs of the aristocracy of the early United States B) political rights less compatible with democracy and individualism than with classical ideals C) political rights uninfluenced by the formation of opposing political parties D) values not inherent in the classical humanist tradition of eighteenth-century England E) values whose interpretation would have been agreed on by all United States Presidents
Q3 According to the passage, the historians mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and the scholars mentioned in the second highlighted portion disagree about the A) contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War B) issues that union members considered most important during the Second World War C) relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War D) effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace E) extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War
Re: In a new book about the antiparty feeling of the early [#permalink]
04 Aug 2014, 03:16
Here is another question associated with above passage:
Which of the following, if true, provides the LEAST support for the author's argument about commerce and political parties during Jackson's presidency?
(A) Many supporters of Jackson resisted the commercialization that could result from participation in a national economy. (B) Protest against the corrupt and partisan nature of political parties in the United States subsided during Jackson's presidency. (C) During Jackson's presidency the use of money became more common than bartering of goods and services. (D) More northerners than southerners supported Jackson because southerners were opposed to the development of a commercial economy. (E) Andrew Jackson did not feel as strongly committed to the classical ideals of leadership as George Washington had felt.
Piyush K ----------------------- Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is to try just one more time. ― Thomas A. Edison Don't forget to press--> Kudos My Articles: 1. WOULD: when to use?| 2. All GMATPrep RCs (New) Tip: Before exam a week earlier don't forget to exhaust all gmatprep problems specially for "sentence correction".