In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various

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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2009, 05:50
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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant
B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits
C. The written “Thank you” reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is
E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with “Thank you” written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

Again, as in such questions, there are normally two very strong possible answers. In this case, it is A or B. Somehow, I don’t find the OA answer very convincing.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2009, 13:14
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cialit0506 wrote:
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits
.

If regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would lead to divert the customer to their earlier tipping habits then the conclusion would not hold. Clearly B
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 01:09
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B.

Premise:
On randomly selected bills, 'thank you' note >> tip more (regardless of regulars or occasionals)

Conclusion:
Regular 'thank you' note >> continue to tip more (but on what assumption? Option B provides the assumption)
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2011, 01:17
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+1 B
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07 Aug 2009, 06:02
is it E>>>coz the argument is assuming that the note 'Thank you' is responsible for the higher tips, whereas it is not taking into account the usual tip giving habits of customers....it culd be such a case where all the particular bill payers, generally leave a higher tip than the general public...
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07 Aug 2009, 07:30
I am inclined towards B.

Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.

If servers wrote regularly Thank you notes and customers won't revert to earlier tipping habits then it would increase servers average income.
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07 Aug 2009, 07:51
I'm going with E, it's hard to tell whether the tips were a result of the smile on the receipt, and it stands to reason that bad service is bad service and a simple smile on a receipt isn't going to change that.
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07 Aug 2009, 08:41
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I like your explanations on B as that was how I thought it should be. And the OA is B too.

But, is there anything wrong with A? Can't A function as an assumption too?

You see, if the impact was the same for both kinds of patrons, wouldn't A become an assumption that supports the argument?

I heard of the technique "If Yes/No" analysis. Shall we use it to go through choices A and B? From what ppl say, if an answer choice could support/weaken an argument whenever it switches from "If Yes" to "If No" or vice versa, then that is probably a correct answer. Choices that could not support or weaken whenever you use "If Yes" or "If No" would not be a correct answer. [Please, someone correct me if im wrong here]

For A

If Yes, A supports/strengthens the argument.

If No (ie. impact is different for both sets of patrons; some might tip a bit more and some a bit less, but ultimately all of them on average would tip more than previously), A cannot weaken the statement either. In fact, if you look closely, B actually still supports the statement.

Since both "If Yes/No" can only support the statement (Even when you swith to "If No", you still cannot weaken it), then this is probably not the answer.

For B
If Yes, B supports the statement. The reasonings are as provided by the previous posts

If No, B weakens the argument instantly. Say, if the patrons would revert back to tipping less, then the argument weakens.

Since both "If Yes/No" can support and weaken the argument, then this is probably the correct answer.

Hmm.... please let me know if you agree with my line of reasoning as it can be a bit hard to put it in words.

Thanks.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2009, 09:28
I think B is the correct answer, flaw in the argument is that they assumes if everybody starts to write Thank you, then people will NOT take that as what should be done and would not tip more...
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07 Aug 2009, 09:48
cialit0506 wrote:
I like your explanations on B as that was how I thought it should be. And the OA is B too.

But, is there anything wrong with A? Can't A function as an assumption too?

You see, if the impact was the same for both kinds of patrons, wouldn't A become an assumption that supports the argument?

I heard of the technique "If Yes/No" analysis. Shall we use it to go through choices A and B? From what ppl say, if an answer choice could support/weaken an argument whenever it switches from "If Yes" to "If No" or vice versa, then that is probably a correct answer. Choices that could not support or weaken whenever you use "If Yes" or "If No" would not be a correct answer. [Please, someone correct me if im wrong here]

For A

If Yes, A supports/strengthens the argument.

If No (ie. impact is different for both sets of patrons; some might tip a bit more and some a bit less, but ultimately all of them on average would tip more than previously), A cannot weaken the statement either. In fact, if you look closely, B actually still supports the statement.

Since both "If Yes/No" can only support the statement (Even when you swith to "If No", you still cannot weaken it), then this is probably not the answer.

For B
If Yes, B supports the statement. The reasonings are as provided by the previous posts

If No, B weakens the argument instantly. Say, if the patrons would revert back to tipping less, then the argument weakens.

Since both "If Yes/No" can support and weaken the argument, then this is probably the correct answer.

Hmm.... please let me know if you agree with my line of reasoning as it can be a bit hard to put it in words.

Thanks.

I am not sure of this technique. But let's discuss option A.
The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant

To me it's a weaker choice than B. Who will contribute more to server's increased revenue? Occasional or Regular Patrons. It's regular patrons who will contribute more. So if I see an option, which focuses more on sustaining regular customer's behavior I would pick that one.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2009, 19:52
IMO A
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09 Aug 2009, 03:31
seems to be B for me.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 16:54
Let's use Kaplan's denial test to see what impact the opposite of this statement would have on the argument:
Regularly seeing thank you on bills WOULD lead to patrons reverting to their old tipping habits."

If tippers go back to tipping the same as they always did before the friendly message, then servers' income from tips wouldn't increase - it would remain the same.

Since the denial of (B) stops the prediction from coming true, (B) MUST BE TRUE in order for the argument to make sense: choose (B).

(E) says: "Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have."

How do you weaken E?If virtually all patrons DO not leave a larget tip then the earnings won't increase.Does'nt that weaken the statement??Please help.
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20 Aug 2009, 18:33
tejal777 wrote:
Let's use Kaplan's denial test to see what impact the opposite of this statement would have on the argument:
Regularly seeing thank you on bills WOULD lead to patrons reverting to their old tipping habits."

If tippers go back to tipping the same as they always did before the friendly message, then servers' income from tips wouldn't increase - it would remain the same.

Since the denial of (B) stops the prediction from coming true, (B) MUST BE TRUE in order for the argument to make sense: choose (B).

(E) says: "Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have."

How do you weaken E?If virtually all patrons DO not leave a larget tip then the earnings won't increase.Does'nt that weaken the statement??Please help.

Extracted: "Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. "

VS

(E) Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

>>In agreement.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2011, 16:00
boeinz wrote:
tejal777 wrote:
Let's use Kaplan's denial test to see what impact the opposite of this statement would have on the argument:
Regularly seeing thank you on bills WOULD lead to patrons reverting to their old tipping habits."

If tippers go back to tipping the same as they always did before the friendly message, then servers' income from tips wouldn't increase - it would remain the same.

Since the denial of (B) stops the prediction from coming true, (B) MUST BE TRUE in order for the argument to make sense: choose (B).

(E) says: "Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have."

How do you weaken E?If virtually all patrons DO not leave a larget tip then the earnings won't increase.Does'nt that weaken the statement??Please help.

Extracted: "Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. "

VS

(E) Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

>>In agreement.

I know this is old, but am replying for the benefit of future readers:

The premise states that the tips were an average of 3% higher.
So even if some patrons didn't leave a larger tip than they normally would have (as per Least extreme negation of option E), the total tip amount would still average out to 3% higher than the normal amount.

Note that you should read every word carefully. The conclusion of the argument is
if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote "Thank you" on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been
The key word here is 'regularly'. Once you get that, B makes complete sense.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2011, 23:41
clear B
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2011, 22:08
OA pls...
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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24 Feb 2011, 04:48
Clearly B. If seeing 'Thank You' would become routine, then the tipping will also be back to routine. So B has to be true for the conclusion to be true.
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09 Dec 2011, 03:03
For people who thought it might be A or E.

Don't you think A was narrowing down a little bit too specifically(probably going OOS0, and E, being a little too generic(again, OOS). E, is more like a general statement that would Strengthen the argument, but, didn't sound more like an assumption.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 11:17
+1 B OA?
Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various   [#permalink] 09 Dec 2011, 11:17

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