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In an experiment, researchers played a series of musical

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In an experiment, researchers played a series of musical [#permalink] New post 25 May 2012, 04:20
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In an experiment, researchers played a series of musical intervals - two-note sequences - to a large diverse group of six-month old babies. They found that the babies paid significantly more attention when the intervals were perfect octaves, fifths, or fourths than otherwise. These intervals are prevalent in the musical systems of most cultures around the world. Thus, humans probably have a biological predisposition to pay more attention to those intervals than to others.

Which one of the following, if true most strengthens the argument?

A) Several similar experiments using older children and adults found that these subjects, too, had a general tendency to pay more attention to octaves, fifths, and fourths than to other musical intervals.

B) None of the babies in the experiment had previous exposure to music from any culture.

C) All of the babies in the experiment had been exposed to music drawn equally from a wide variety of cultures around the world.

D) In a second experiment, these same babies showed no clear tendency to notice primary colors more than other colors.

E) Octaves, fifths, and fourths were played more frequently during the experiment than other musical intervals were.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 25 May 2012, 04:24
i chose option A...

premise says ..babies paid significantly more attention to perfect octaves, fifths, or fourths than otherwise

conclusion : humans probably have a biological predisposition to pay more attention to those intervals than to others.

--its generalizing the case with 6 month old children to all humans.--(1)
--- to support it there should be something that help the line (1)
therefre " Several similar experiments using older children and adults found that these subjects, too, had a general tendency to pay more attention to octaves, fifths, and fourths than to other musical intervals "
fits well in strenthening the argument .
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 25 May 2012, 05:44
well, i guess babies are infact representing human beings here rather than generalizing.. Other cultures people who are adult also showed the same tendencies its already said..

I will go for "B" which proves that the judgement of the babies are not biased and anything that strengthens the source of a research statistics also strengthens the argument..

yet, would love to know more from other guyz out there :)
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 25 May 2012, 08:58
I thought A.

I'm looking at other discussions around this and it seems pretty split on A/B.

Some people mention that adults are irrelevant but I think it matters because the argument is that HUMANS have a biological predisposition not exclusively babies.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 25 May 2012, 09:18
+1 A

B and C are tempting, but A provides additional evidence.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 25 May 2012, 10:36
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B

OA is also B ... Nice explanation at the below link:
http://www.beatthegmat.com/strengthens- ... 51783.html
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 25 May 2012, 22:33
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deepti1206 wrote:
n an experiment, researchers played a series of musical intervals - two-note sequences - to a large diverse group of six-month old babies. They found that the babies paid significantly more attention when the intervals were perfect octaves, fifths, or fourths than otherwise. These intervals are prevalent in the musical systems of most cultures around the world. Thus, humans probably have a biological predisposition to pay more attention to those intervals than to others.

Which one of the following, if true most strengthens the argument?

A) Several similar experiments using older children and adults found that these subjects, too, had a general tendency to pay more attention to octaves, fifths, and fourths than to other musical intervals.

B) None of the babies in the experiment had previous exposure to music from any culture.

C) All of the babies in the experiment had been exposed to music drawn equally from a wide variety of cultures around the world.

D) In a second experiment, these same babies showed no clear tendency to notice primary colors more than other colors.

E) Octaves, fifths, and fourths were played more frequently during the experiment than other musical intervals were.


has to be "B"

only B nullifies any effect culture could have had on relating musical patterns.
additionally, it also states that the babies had no previous exposure to music.
so, it must certainly be hard-wired into one's biological setup.

A tempting. but what if cultural effects could have played a role?
C does not strengthen. not enough evidence.
D irrelevant
E does not strengthen. only brings in more doubt!

i hope my reasoning is right here.

as an aside, discerning odd patterns in music is super fun... :-D
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 26 May 2012, 10:26
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deepti1206 wrote:
In an experiment, researchers played a series of musical intervals - two-note sequences - to a large diverse group of six-month old babies. They found that the babies paid significantly more attention when the intervals were perfect octaves, fifths, or fourths than otherwise. These intervals are prevalent in the musical systems of most cultures around the world. Thus, humans probably have a biological predisposition to pay more attention to those intervals than to others.

Which one of the following, if true most strengthens the argument?

A) Several similar experiments using older children and adults found that these subjects, too, had a general tendency to pay more attention to octaves, fifths, and fourths than to other musical intervals.

B) None of the babies in the experiment had previous exposure to music from any culture.

C) All of the babies in the experiment had been exposed to music drawn equally from a wide variety of cultures around the world.

D) In a second experiment, these same babies showed no clear tendency to notice primary colors more than other colors.

E) Octaves, fifths, and fourths were played more frequently during the experiment than other musical intervals were.



Both (A) and (B) strengthen the argument, but do so in different ways. (B) ends up being stronger.

As presented, the argument makes a conclusion based on babies and extrapolates it to include all humans.

(A) helps strengthen by giving an example that we find similar conclusions on children/adults
(B) helps strengthen by filling a hole in the argument.

To find out that hole that (B) is referring to - you have to read carefully. Those intervals are prevalent in most cultures around the world - does that encompass all humans?

No. There may be some humans whose cultures don't have those intervals as being prevalent. Thus, there is a hole in the argument.

(B) fills that hole.

Between finding another example that replicates the same conclusion from babies to children/adults versus filling a hole, filling a hole in the argument is the STRONGER one.

Filling the hole in an argument does a better job at strengthening an argument than does providing another example. That's why (B) makes sense over (A) here.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 27 May 2012, 19:44
IMO B. If i turn option B around and say that some of the babies were already exposed to similar music, then the authenticity of the test results comes into question. Hence this assumption is necessary to hold the conclusion true.

Tho i must say A is tempting because it fills the gap between babies and humans. But B is a stronger influence imo.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 28 May 2012, 11:21
Clearly A. The conclusion is drawn for the general human beings and not for babies in particular.. 'A' clearly fills the gap stating that the results of the babies are the same for people of other age groups as well.. this adds more value to the conclusion.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 28 May 2012, 22:50
vivekarl wrote:
Clearly A. The conclusion is drawn for the general human beings and not for babies in particular.. 'A' clearly fills the gap stating that the results of the babies are the same for people of other age groups as well.. this adds more value to the conclusion.



The adults judgement may b biased by their culture.. So, we cant generalize all human beings comparing to adults who are already exposed to their culture..
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 29 May 2012, 00:01
I will go with choice B, which clearly fills the gap. If you say that the babies dont have any prior music exposure, no other reason than biological disposition can be considered for their attention. Choice A, even though it adds a point positively, does not clearly support the conclusion.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 29 May 2012, 03:37
deepti1206 wrote:
n an experiment, researchers played a series of musical intervals - two-note sequences - to a large diverse group of six-month old babies. They found that the babies paid significantly more attention when the intervals were perfect octaves, fifths, or fourths than otherwise. These intervals are prevalent in the musical systems of most cultures around the world. Thus, humans probably have a biological predisposition to pay more attention to those intervals than to others.

Which one of the following, if true most strengthens the argument?

A) Several similar experiments using older children and adults found that these subjects, too, had a general tendency to pay more attention to octaves, fifths, and fourths than to other musical intervals.

B) None of the babies in the experiment had previous exposure to music from any culture.

C) All of the babies in the experiment had been exposed to music drawn equally from a wide variety of cultures around the world.

D) In a second experiment, these same babies showed no clear tendency to notice primary colors more than other colors.

E) Octaves, fifths, and fourths were played more frequently during the experiment than other musical intervals were.




Human beings have natural ability to pay more attention to intervals such as perfect octaves, fifths, or fourths. This is evident by an experiment done on babies where they paid attention to these intervals more than any other ones.

A. This provides more evidence. Now three groups are supporting the fact : babies, old children and adults. But why general tendency. I am doubtful. But this could be true.
B. Yes this may be true. Infact, it is true, because if babies had no previous exposure to music and they still pay attention to intervals, it strengthens the fact, that human beings have a natural tendency towards these interval
C. This is false. If babies are exposed to music before the experiment, it leaves lot of room for doubt.
D. No. What if they paid attention to colors? It doesnt preclude them from paying attention to music intervals. Out of scope
E. If this is true then this is not an unbiased experiment. Hence false.


I will go with B.

But why not A. Pls clarify.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 29 May 2012, 05:50
nishantmehra01 wrote:
deepti1206 wrote:
n an experiment, researchers played a series of musical intervals - two-note sequences - to a large diverse group of six-month old babies. They found that the babies paid significantly more attention when the intervals were perfect octaves, fifths, or fourths than otherwise. These intervals are prevalent in the musical systems of most cultures around the world. Thus, humans probably have a biological predisposition to pay more attention to those intervals than to others.

Which one of the following, if true most strengthens the argument?

A) Several similar experiments using older children and adults found that these subjects, too, had a general tendency to pay more attention to octaves, fifths, and fourths than to other musical intervals.

B) None of the babies in the experiment had previous exposure to music from any culture.

C) All of the babies in the experiment had been exposed to music drawn equally from a wide variety of cultures around the world.

D) In a second experiment, these same babies showed no clear tendency to notice primary colors more than other colors.

E) Octaves, fifths, and fourths were played more frequently during the experiment than other musical intervals were.




Human beings have natural ability to pay more attention to intervals such as perfect octaves, fifths, or fourths. This is evident by an experiment done on babies where they paid attention to these intervals more than any other ones.

A. This provides more evidence. Now three groups are supporting the fact : babies, old children and adults. But why general tendency. I am doubtful. But this could be true.
B. Yes this may be true. Infact, it is true, because if babies had no previous exposure to music and they still pay attention to intervals, it strengthens the fact, that human beings have a natural tendency towards these interval
C. This is false. If babies are exposed to music before the experiment, it leaves lot of room for doubt.
D. No. What if they paid attention to colors? It doesnt preclude them from paying attention to music intervals. Out of scope
E. If this is true then this is not an unbiased experiment. Hence false.


I will go with B.

But why not A. Pls clarify.



Suppose we invert B. That would say: The babies in the experiment had previous exposure to music from any culture.

What would happen then?

It would mean that the predisposition of the babies to pay more attention to intervals would be biased by 'past information' rather than 'biological'. This is the key here, the fact that B is negating the 'biological predisposition.

Regards,

Shouvik.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 29 May 2012, 07:22
cnclusion is human pay more attention to octaves -
must be A - right? wrong?
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 29 May 2012, 08:04
kashishh wrote:
cnclusion is human pay more attention to octaves -
must be A - right? wrong?


No, The answer is B. The option A doesn't emphasize on any 'biological predisposition'. It just weakens the conclusion from the point of view of generalizing a survey result. B is a more fitting answer.

Regards,

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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 29 May 2012, 09:03
Thanks Shouvik! It makes sense now that why it should be B.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 31 May 2012, 23:14
I go with B, although in the first thought, I was confused between B and C. However, after thinking carefully and thoroughly, choice B is stronger than choice C. If the babies listened music from variety of cultures before, they were probably affected from that kind of music.
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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2012, 03:25
B is the right answer because it strengthens the argument by squashing a competing hypothesis that the babies may be more drawn to perfect, 5ths and 4ths because they might have some previous familiarity with those notes, hence those observed responses.

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Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2012, 06:11
I eliminated B based on the extreme language and picked A instead.

Isnt language is something you should take into consideration? Thanks.
Re: humans probably have a biological predisposition   [#permalink] 05 Jun 2012, 06:11
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