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In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 04 Sep 2010, 12:34
D. 15 seconds

A and B take out the of X
C. of which contributing X
E. Their X


Allen760 wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2011, 17:39
Each is singular. So down to D and C. "of which" is redundant. Hence D remains.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 04 Nov 2011, 04:35
A, B and E are wrong because antecedent of "their" is sigular....

between C and D... C is wrong because dangling modifier...

D should be the answer
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 04 Nov 2011, 06:26
IMO-D,
In D with "each" , "its" is the correct usage in place of their.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 13 Jan 2013, 12:49
its should refer to planets ,which is wrong .so correct ans should not be D .PLS I M CONFUSED BETWEEN E & D
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 29 Oct 2014, 21:34
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 29 Oct 2014, 23:32
raj0774 wrote:
its should refer to planets ,which is wrong .so correct ans should not be D .PLS I M CONFUSED BETWEEN E & D


Hi Raj

'its' is referring to 'each' and not 'planets'

Let's look at the sentence:

In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

their (plural ) can't be paired with each (singular) and thus, A, B, and E can be eliminated.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their- wrong pronoun
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their- wrong pronoun
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their- wrong pronoun

We are down to two now

C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its

Use of 'each of which' is imprecise here. 'each of which' like 'which' requires a verb after that. As there is no verb after 'each of which', the construction is imprecise.

Correct use of 'each of which' -
select any two answer choices, each of which can be used to complete the sentence.
I have bought several books, each of which is based on a different theme.


D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its

Answer D

Hope it helps!
Dolly :)
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 30 Oct 2014, 00:29
Expert's post
Yes, "their" is wrong because it doesn't agree with "each."

You can't say "each of which contributing." Adding "of which" makes "each" into a subject which would then need the verb "contributes."

In D, "each contributing" serves as a modifier--"each" doesn't serve as a subject.

Compare these:

The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each dreaming of landing a big role.
The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each of whom dreamed of landing a big role.

Those both work. What we wouldn't want to say is this:

The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each of whom dreaming of landing a big role.

Hopefully, that sounds awful to you! The sentence we're dealing with here works in the same way.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 08 Jan 2015, 10:46
DmitryFarber wrote:
Yes, "their" is wrong because it doesn't agree with "each."

You can't say "each of which contributing." Adding "of which" makes "each" into a subject which would then need the verb "contributes."

In D, "each contributing" serves as a modifier--"each" doesn't serve as a subject.

Compare these:

The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each dreaming of landing a big role.
The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each of whom dreamed of landing a big role.

Those both work. What we wouldn't want to say is this:

The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each of whom dreaming of landing a big role.



Hopefully, that sounds awful to you! The sentence we're dealing with here works in the same way.



Hi Dmitry,

Can you shed some more light on "each of which" and "each of whom" constructions from a grammatical standpoint.
I mean I couldn't grasp how each of whom/each of which can act as a subject , while a singular each can't. :?

Thanks,
SR
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 08 Jan 2015, 12:24
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It's not that a solitary "each" can't serve as a subject--it's that it doesn't have to. The word "each" can serve as either a pronoun or a modifier (adjective/adverb).

Pronoun: Each one of these paintings is worth a million dollars.
Modifier: There are three bedrooms, each with its own bathroom.

However, we can also use "each" as a pronoun in a modifying clause. In this case, we use "of which/of whom" to signal that we are building such a clause.

He ordered several different dishes, each of which could have served as a meal in its own right.

Here, "each" is the subject and "could" is the main verb. We typically do this to express something more complicated than we could in a normal modifier. Notice that because we have a complex set of verbs ("could have served"), it would be hard to express this without a full clause. If we said "each serving as a meal in its own right," that would change the intended meaning (each dish actually is a meal).

I hope that helps!
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink] New post 08 Jan 2015, 20:55
DmitryFarber wrote:
It's not that a solitary "each" can't serve as a subject--it's that it doesn't have to. The word "each" can serve as either a pronoun or a modifier (adjective/adverb).

Pronoun: Each one of these paintings is worth a million dollars.
Modifier: There are three bedrooms, each with its own bathroom.

However, we can also use "each" as a pronoun in a modifying clause. In this case, we use "of which/of whom" to signal that we are building such a clause.

He ordered several different dishes, each of which could have served as a meal in its own right.

Here, "each" is the subject and "could" is the main verb. We typically do this to express something more complicated than we could in a normal modifier. Notice that because we have a complex set of verbs ("could have served"), it would be hard to express this without a full clause. If we said "each serving as a meal in its own right," that would change the intended meaning (each dish actually is a meal).

I hope that helps!


Great explanation Dmitry ! :)

Thanks ! now I got it.
Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the   [#permalink] 08 Jan 2015, 20:55

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