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In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,

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In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2005, 23:03
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In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids, except for tryptophan, Tryptophan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brain's serotonin level. Thus sugars can play a major role in mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin the brain.
(B) Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
(C) Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is presented in the bloodstream.
(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety.
(E) The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
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ASSUMPTION QUESTIONS [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2011, 04:24
In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids, except for tryptophan. Tryptophan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brain’s serotonin level. Thus, sugars can play a major role in mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin in the brain.
(B) Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
(C) Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream.
(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety.
(E) The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
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Re: ASSUMPTION QUESTIONS [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2011, 04:27
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION LSAT (Powerscore)
Answer choice (A): Although the author assumes that raising the level of serotonin is sufficient to elevate mood, this answer claims that it is necessary. Hence, this answer is incorrect.

Answer choice (D): This is the correct answer. The author states that after the action of the sugars, more
serotonin enters the brain. The author then concludes that this leads to a mood elevation. Thus, the author
assumes that serotonin has an effect on the mood level.

Answer choice (B): The argument refers to what happens when sugars are ingested. No assumption is
made about what occurs when foods rich in sugars are not ingested.

Answer choice (C): Although the argument states that tryptophan is transformed into serotonin, no
assumption is made that this is the only way serotonin is produced.

Answer choice (E): The author does not assume the statement in this answer. We know from the first
sentence of the stimulus that ingested protein is broken down into amino acids which compete to enter the
brain. This competition could result in mood elevation even without the ingestion of sugars since some
amino acids will enter the brain (some could be tryptophan, for example). Thus, since the author’s
argument contains a scenario that would allow for the opposite of this answer choice to occur, this answer
is not an assumption of the argument.
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In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, [#permalink] New post 24 Sep 2012, 22:01
In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids, except for tryptophan. Tryptophan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brain’s serotonin level. Thus sugars cause mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin the brain.
(B) Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
(C) Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is presented in the bloodstream.
(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety.
(E) The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
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Last edited by getgyan on 28 Sep 2012, 03:04, edited 1 time in total.
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In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, [#permalink] New post 24 Sep 2012, 22:03
In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids, except for tryptophan. Tryptophan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brain’s serotonin level. Thus sugars cause mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin the brain.
(B) Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
(C) Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is presented in the bloodstream.
(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety.
(E) The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids [#permalink] New post 24 Sep 2012, 22:20
Interesting question, specially the choice between d and a.

In my opinion answer should a as we require a link between serotonin level and sugar therefore answer should be A.

D is not an assumption that, it is more of an inference. As assumption stands before the stimulus and inference is what u derive from it.

Please provide oa.

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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into [#permalink] New post 28 Sep 2012, 03:03
+1 D

Premise - In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids, except for tryptophan. Tryptophan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brain’s serotonin level.

Conclusion - Thus sugars cause mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

Clearly there is a gap between the premise and the conclusion. Any option which connects these two i.e. Serotonin with relaxation and freedom from anxiety is our answer

After the preliminary check, only options A and D are left.

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin the brain (This option is poorly constructed and does not include relaxation)
(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety (This is our answer as it correctly fills the hole between the premise and the assumption)

:-D
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In humans,ingested protein is broken down into amino [#permalink] New post 05 Mar 2013, 22:07
In humans,ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,all of which must compete to enter the brain.Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin,a horemone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids,except for tryptophan.Tryptohan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical scrotonin ,increasing the brain`s scrotonin level.Thus,sugars can play a major role in mood elevation,helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain
(B)Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood
(C)Scrotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream
(D)Increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety
(E)The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.

Need explanation.............
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Re: In humans,ingested protein is broken down into amino acids [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2013, 00:10
mun23 wrote:
In humans,ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,all of which must compete to enter the brain.Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin,a horemone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids,except for tryptophan.Tryptohan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical scrotonin ,increasing the brain`s scrotonin level.Thus,sugars can play a major role in mood elevation,helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain Strengthens the argument
(B)Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood Consume =! ingestion
(C)Scrotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream How scrotonin is produced is not relevant in this argument --> out of scope
(D)Increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety Here is the link we are looking for
(E)The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood. Protein rich food is not part of the argument --> out of scope

Need explanation.............


You have to find the missing link between the premises (blah blah increasing the brain`s scrotonin level) & the conclusion (sugars can play a major role in mood elevation). The relation between scrotonin level & mood elevation.
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Re: In humans,ingested protein is broken down into amino acids [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2013, 02:03
Negating D means that increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain doesn't promote relaxation and freedom from anxiety. In other words, the conclusion based on the fact that ingestion of sugar ( which leads to the production of insulin,a horemone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids,except for tryptophan.Tryptohan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical scrotonin ,increasing the brain`s scrotonin level) plays a major role in mood elevation,helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free will be not valid at all.

Hence, D is the assumption we are looking for

Hope that helps !
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Re: In humans,ingested protein is broken down into amino acids [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2013, 12:24
Hello Mun23,

Let me try helping you with this one. The argument mentions that amino acids generally compete to get to the brain. However, subsequent consumption of some sort of sugar causes all amino acids, except tryptophan, to be removed from the bloodstream. Tryptophan then enters the brain and acts as a base for production of serotonin increasing the brain's level of serotonin. Thus, the passage concludes that sugars play an important role in mood elevation and makes one feel relaxed and care-free. However, if you notice here, the argument jumps from the increase in levels of serotonin to mood elevation. This is possible only if serotonin causes mood elevation. This should lead us directly to D. However, let us analyze the rest of the statements for clarity.

(A)Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin in the brain.
This is stretching reality a bit far too much. In this case, all the passage mentions is that the presence of serotonin is good for enhancing mood and proving freedom from anxiety. However, it does not mention anywhere that serotonin is required for this. Many other chemicals in the body could also provide the same relaxed feeling, for all we know. Now let us negate the statement. Negating the statement tells us that the elevation of mood and freedom does not require increasing the level of serotonin in the brain. This can be interpreted as the elevation of mood does not necessarily require an increase in level of serotonin in the brain. It could be achieved by a number of other chemicals. The negation of this statement does not cause the argument to fall apart and hence, not the answer.

(B)Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
This tells us that absence of sugar does not result in anxiety but does not tell us whether the presence of sugar causes an elevation in mood. It could be possible that the absence of sugar does not cause anxiety but the presence of sugar relieves one from anxiety. Also, we need a link between serotonin and elevation of mood. This gives us no such link between the two.

(C)Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream.
This is not an assumption that is required. So what id serotonin can be produced only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream. It does not give us any information that could negate our conclusion or make it fall apart.

(D)Increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety. Answer

(E)The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
This cannot be confirmed based on the content in the passage. The passage mentions that the consumption of sugars might lower in anxiety. However, we do not know whether the consumption of protein lowers the amount of serotonin in brain or not. If we knew something in this direction, it might have been possible to confirm this statement. Also, negating this does not cause the argument to fall apart.

Hope this helps! Let me know if I can help you any further.

mun23 wrote:
In humans,ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,all of which must compete to enter the brain.Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin,a horemone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids,except for tryptophan.Tryptohan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical scrotonin ,increasing the brain`s scrotonin level.Thus,sugars can play a major role in mood elevation,helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain
(B)Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood
(C)Scrotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream
(D)Increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety
(E)The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.

Need explanation.............

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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2013, 22:07
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

Please check and follow the Guidelines for Posting in Verbal GMAT forum before posting anything.
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, [#permalink] New post 05 Jul 2014, 03:28
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