In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh

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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2009, 06:53
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.
A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

OA:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

My question:

As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

What I understood is that:
in the case of E tourists is the noun in the modifier 'exhaled by tourists'. So, 'tourists' loose the significance as it is out of scope for the remaining main sentence/clause. But is is the right creteria to reject the pronoun reference to noun 'tourists'.

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference.

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Last edited by sudeep on 02 Oct 2009, 07:33, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: OG12 # SC 5 chambers [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2009, 07:25
Very interesting question.

I didn't come across this or such type of questions in OG10 and OG11. This Q is probably one of the few new ones in OG12.

Folks, if you have come across such SCs on this forms, please add the links to this trail.

+1 to you for posting this Q
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Re: OG12 # SC 6 chambers [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2009, 07:50
sudeep wrote:
Quote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.
A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

OA:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

My question:

As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

What I understood is that:
in the case of E tourists is the noun in the modifier 'exhaled by tourists'. So, 'tourists' loose the significance as it is out of scope for the remaining main sentence/clause. But is is the right creteria to reject the pronoun reference to noun 'tourists'.

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference.

I wonder what you mean by saying tourists loose the significance as it is out of scope

coming back to the pronoun reference issue -- I think the reason THEM refers to tourists in C and D and not in E
is that in C and D there is an intervening Clause which introduces TOURISTS in such a way that it can act as a more proximate antecedent (than chambers); recall that a pronoun refers to the nearest logical antecedent

In C -- it says -- Tourists WERE exhaling moisture ---- hence TOURISTS can act as a subject in its own right.

In D -- it says -- because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists -- again here even though the subject of the relative clause introduced by THAT is MOISTURE yet THEM cannot refer to moisture but instead refers to the predicate of the clause (Tourists) in this case.

In E if you notice because moisture exhaled by tourists cannot position tourist as a likely antecedent (because 'tourists' is part of a phrase and hence cannot stand on its own as a subject).

I am not sure if I was able to explain. Let me know if you need further explanation and I will try to explain again.

To be sure --- C and D have other problems which made eliminating them a lot easier -- to the extent that I had missed the pronoun reference entirely -- until you pointed it out.

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Re: OG12 # SC 6 chambers [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2009, 08:40
dwivedys wrote:
I wonder what you mean by saying tourists loose the significance as it is out of scope
I was thinking in the similar lines of your explanation of E.
dwivedys wrote:
coming back to the pronoun reference issue -- I think the reason THEM refers to tourists in C and D and not in E
is that in C and D there is an intervening Clause which introduces TOURISTS in such a way that it can act as a more proximate antecedent (than chambers); recall that a pronoun refers to the nearest logical antecedent
Agree..!
dwivedys wrote:
In C -- it says -- Tourists WERE exhaling moisture ---- hence TOURISTS can act as a subject in its own right.
This is fine.
dwivedys wrote:
In D -- it says -- because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists -- again here even though the subject of the relative clause introduced by THAT is MOISTURE yet THEM cannot refer to moisture but instead refers to the predicate of the clause (Tourists) in this case.
In this case,

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize and fungus was growing on the walls.

Lets cut it short.

the chambers [strike]inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza[/strike] were closed to visitors [strike]for cleaning and repair[/strike] because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them [strike]to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize and fungus was growing on the walls.[/strike]

the chambers were closed to visitors because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them.

this sentence can be broken down in 2 ways:

i) the chambers were closed to visitors because of moisture (that was exhaled by tourists) raising the humidity within them.

ii) the chambers were closed to visitors because of moisture (that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them).
Is it correct? In this case 'raising the humidiy...' is modifying the tourists not the noun phrase "moisture...tourists".
in (ii) 'them' seems to refer to tourists.

can this be the reason.
dwivedys wrote:
In E if you notice because moisture exhaled by tourists cannot position tourist as a likely antecedent (because 'tourists' is part of a phrase and hence cannot stand on its own as a subject).

So does that mean if we have noun in the phrase modifier in the main clause, pronoun shouldn't refer back to it?

So is the below sentence incorrect?
"Book X written by John is not his best work."
dwivedys wrote:
I am not sure if I was able to explain. Let me know if you need further explanation and I will try to explain again.

To be sure --- C and D have other problems which made eliminating them a lot easier -- to the extent that I had missed the pronoun reference entirely -- until you pointed it out.

I too look into the pronoun issue only after looking the explanation.
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Re: OG12 # SC 6 chambers [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2009, 10:00
You're right. My explanation of choice E has a hole that you've correctly picked.
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Re: OG12 # SC 6 chambers [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2009, 10:36
so we still need the explanation
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Re: OG12 # SC 6 chambers [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2009, 21:08
This question is very close to the

In her book illustrations, Beatrix Potter carefully coordinated them with her narratives.
problem in OG.

I think you will get your hints there. The best way of answering this question is POE.
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Re: OG12 # SC 6 chambers [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2009, 05:59
sudeep wrote:
so we still need the explanation

Sure, if somebody can. All these years, I have rarely found an authority on Pronoun usages. Most of them can be spotted but at least some of them are pretty difficult to explain.
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Re: OG12 # SC 6 chambers [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2009, 09:57
C and D have awkward 'ing' form, where as E correctly explains the past event so E is right.
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Re: OG12 # SC 6 chambers [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2011, 03:09
Let us take the idiom route to solve this. ‘Such levels that’ is the right idiom and you have that in B and E only. Between B and E, B is too awkward for using wrong reasons such as the chambers being closed due to moisture rather than due to the raised levels of humidity and for using the future modal ‘would crystallize’. E is the choice by POE. I took the pronoun ‘them’ in its stride to mean the chambers.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2015, 11:45
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2015, 11:48
sudeep wrote:
Quote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.
A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

OA:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

My question:

As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

What I understood is that:
in the case of E tourists is the noun in the modifier 'exhaled by tourists'. So, 'tourists' loose the significance as it is out of scope for the remaining main sentence/clause. But is is the right creteria to reject the pronoun reference to noun 'tourists'.

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference
.

Still no answer has been found for this question, in bold?!
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2015, 00:18
apolo wrote:
sudeep wrote:
As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference[/b].

Still no answer has been found for this question, in bold?!

This has to do with bit of a logical reasoning. In C, D and E, let's identify the clause that tourists is a part of:

C. because tourists were exhaling moisture (verb is were)
D. that was exhaled by tourists (verb is was)
E. moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them (verb is had)

Notice that them is a part of the same clause as tourists is, only in E. Now here is the thing. When an object pronoun (such as them in this case) is used, it can never refer to a noun in the same clause. This is just a logical reasoning thing. Let's take an example.

Suppose Peter scored exceptionally well and was proud of his marks. Would we say:

i) After scoring well, Peter was proud of him.

Or

ii) After scoring well, Peter was proud of himself.

Clearly ii). him (object pronoun) cannot be used to refer to Peter (noun in the same clause).

Similarly, in the sentence under consideration, in option E, him (object pronoun) cannot be used to refer to tourists (noun in the same clause).
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 08:53
Answer is E 100% sure I have the book w/ this answer key

My logic:
Growing- ing on the walls <--- Parallel
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh   [#permalink] 28 Jul 2016, 08:53
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# In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh

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