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# In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh

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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2013, 21:00
thanks GMAT Pill for the reply, it did help a lot
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Re: pyramids of giza (OG12) [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2013, 21:21
metallicafan wrote:
I don't think that the explanation given by GMAT Tiger is enough. There must be a grammatical explanation, not only logical.

Anyone who can answer the question, please?:why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)

Thanks!

think this way

pronoun ambiguity can be acceptable if there is not better choice. pronoun ambiguity is not absolute grammar rule such as subject-verb agreement or tense usage.

pronoun ambiguity can be CORRECT BUT NOT PREFERED.

I write about CORRECT BUT NOT PREFERED in many places on the internet,. pplease read and clear your doubt of some patterns in sc gmat.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2013, 06:58
Hi folks,

Seems that Nobody has answered "Why them in C/D is ambiguous while it is perfect in E". Here is what I think:

Whenever I do SC I just ask question to me why why and thereby I get closer.

We already know that non-underlined part is EFFECT and is the main clause/main idea about which we will talk.

Consider (C).

because tourists were exhaling moisture, which
had raised the humidity within them to levels
such that salt from the stone would crystallize

Lets dissect it.

Clause: tourists were exhaling moisture
Clause: which had raised humidity within them to levels.

Knowing the fact that we already stated the effect and now we are talking about the cause so for
the clause starting with which , it depends on the clause started with because thereby it refers back
to "tourists".

Consider (D).

because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists
raising the humidity within them to levels so high
as to make the salt from the stone crystallize

Dissect it:

because of X that...Blah Blah.

Because of moisture exhaled by tourists raising humidity levels within them .

'them' clearly refers back to tourists.

Hope that helps
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2013, 07:24
Hi, I agree that no one has given 100% foolproof answer to the original question of justifying 'Them', so we must go with the definition of a correct answer in Official guide - 'Select the answer that produces the most effective sentence'.

In all the answer choices 'E ' produces the most effective sentence.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2014, 12:52
srini123 wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled,thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

my question is :

[Reveal] Spoiler:
why "them" is correctly referring to the channels in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)

Subject is chambers, thus "its" is wrong and therefore we eliminate A and B.

"such that salt" sounds weird and so does "which had raised" because it is not clear what "had raised" refers to. C is gone.
"exhaled by tourists raising the humidity" obviously distorts the intended meaning of the author. D is gone.

Everything in E makes sense, and as far as parallelism goes, "salt... was crystalizing" is parallel to "fungus was growing", both have subject + present participle in a correct way.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2014, 05:39
Guys, I found the discusion about the same question in manhattan forum. Accroding to this, Pronoun reference errors should be given least priority.

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/in- ... 14977.html
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2014, 00:42
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

N.B I have posted this question so that e-gmat people can reply. Thanks!
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2014, 03:01
Merged similar topic

See the above explanation is something is unclear and use the search button before to post the same question.

regards
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2014, 22:25
I assume that there's no question that option E is the correct answer. Now the question to what "them" is referring is more logical than grammatical? Here's my take -

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing.

option 1 - In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within the chambers to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing.

option 2 - In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within tourists to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing.

Logically moisture increasing inside the tourists (humans) sounds awkward therefore in my opinion, Option 1 is a better choice any day.

I request @e-gmat or any other expert to reply on this post.

Thanks
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2014, 08:56
I saw the explanation in OG and they said that (D) is wrong because them refer to tourists.

While (E) is correct and them is understood as "chambers".

Can anyone show me the difference of these two options?

Many thanks.

GMAT TIGER wrote:
srini123 wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for
cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

A, B and D are out for "due to" and "because of". Both are GMAT unfavorables.
C and E are close. The obvious problem with C is that it has passive construction. C is also not parallel to the last part of the sentence.

Why "them" refers to "chambers' not "tourists" is a matter of logical reasoning. If "them" does not refers to "chambers" but tourist, it makes the sentence so illogical that the meaning would be tourists exhaled moisture within themselves (tourist) not in the chambers and this act raises the humidity within the tourists. In that case, the meaning of the sentence becomes completely illogical.

So E is best...
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2014, 10:11
thuylinh wrote:
I saw the explanation in OG and they said that (D) is wrong because them refer to tourists.

While (E) is correct and them is understood as "chambers".

Can anyone show me the difference of these two options?

Many thanks.

GMAT TIGER wrote:
srini123 wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for
cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

A, B and D are out for "due to" and "because of". Both are GMAT unfavorables.
C and E are close. The obvious problem with C is that it has passive construction. C is also not parallel to the last part of the sentence.

Why "them" refers to "chambers' not "tourists" is a matter of logical reasoning. If "them" does not refers to "chambers" but tourist, it makes the sentence so illogical that the meaning would be tourists exhaled moisture within themselves (tourist) not in the chambers and this act raises the humidity within the tourists. In that case, the meaning of the sentence becomes completely illogical.

So E is best...

I will suggest you to solve from OG and read the explanations of the SC questions from the forum.

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

due to -> acts as an adjective hence can modify only the noun.
For example cancellation of the match was due to heavy rain -> Correct -> Due to is modifying cancellation
The match was cancelled due to heavy rain -> Wrong as Due to is modifying the verb - Cancelled.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled,thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize

(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
would -> gives an impression that the action is still doubtful which doesn't make sense as the event happened in the past.

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
raising -> cannot be a verb -> it is acting as a modifier modifying the closest noun (Tourist) -> Which is wrong
had raised -> Correctly used in Option C) and Option E)

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing -> Correct
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2014, 15:22
I got it, EducationAisle. Thank you very much!

EducationAisle wrote:
thuylinh wrote:
I saw the explanation in OG and they said that (D) is wrong because them refer to tourists.

While (E) is correct and them is understood as "chambers".

Can anyone show me the difference of these two options?

Let us look at E. The clause we are talking about is:

Moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them

If them in any way had to refer to tourists, then the sentence would have used the reflexive pronoun themselves.

For example, which of the following would you say:

i) The phenomenal GMAT score made thuylinh proud of her.

Or

ii) The phenomenal GMAT score made thuylinh proud of herself.

Clearly if thuylinh is proud that she scored phenomenally on GMAT, then the usage has to be herself.

In D however, the clause is:

that was exhaled by tourists

So, them is outside this clause and hence, has multiple antecedents.

Having said this, pronoun ambiguity should not be your first reason to disregard an answer choice. As others have already mentioned, there are several other more apparent reasons why D is not correct.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2015, 22:43
In A, 'which' doesn't modify moisture. That is why I chose E.
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2015, 21:36
As per e-gmat, 'Due to'->modify noun and 'Because of'->modify verb.

I am still unclear if 'which' refers to 'moisture' as a noun or 'moisture exhaled' as a verb.

How to get it corrected?
Can someone explain. Thanks!
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2015, 09:31
Can we have a "due to" vs. "because of" split here or is it a false split?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2015, 22:01
According to a e-GMAT teacher, "due to" should be replaced with "be caused by". Here, "due to" on A and B cannot be replaced with "be caused by". Hence they should be eliminated. As for C, because clause is a passive tense. Looking at E, E is an active tense. It seems that E does not have any issues. So hold E. D uses "because of" and it is obviously lengthy. So eliminate D. Hence, the answer is E.
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2015, 03:31
A and B are wrong because ‘Due to’ modifies the action in the preceding clause and hence is not used correctly and also meaning wise it implies that chambers were closed due to moisture. Both ways it is wrong.
Option C is wrong for multiple reasons. because tourists were exhaling moisture is wrong since the action is completed and, "which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize" is also wrong since there is no past tense action which took place after moisture had raised the humidity. The order of actions is wrong.
I picked option E for parallelism was crystallizing and also because past perfect tense is used properly to show the order of actions took place.
But i could not understand why exactly in option D, because of usage is wrong here since it refers to the clause correctly.
Can someone explain why option D is wrong for all reasons?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2015, 19:48
ShristiK wrote:
Can we have a "due to" vs. "because of" split here or is it a false split?

It would be a false split imo

a better split and an easier way to solve the problem would be to split just the last word "crystallizing" vs. "crystallize". The correct side of the split would be "crystallizing" because it is followed by "growing", which falls outside the scope of our stem.

That leaves you with option A and E

A is wrong for other, clear reasons, leaving E to be the only correct answer.

I first split it differently, and after spending 2 minutes was left with C and E. That's when I realized this.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2016, 22:34
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

"for cleaning and repair.." Is this phrase parallel? gerund and verb?

because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

Isn't the use of 'them' is somewhat ambiguous? As if it's referrin to tourists? Seemin to suggest that the tourists had raised the humidity within themselves?

If anybody can help me with these please!! Thanks.
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2016, 23:15
enasni wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

"for cleaning and repair.." Is this phrase parallel? gerund and verb?

because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

Isn't the use of 'them' is somewhat ambiguous? As if it's referrin to tourists? Seemin to suggest that the tourists had raised the humidity within themselves?

If anybody can help me with these please!! Thanks.

Hi enasni
1) "for cleaning and repair.." Is this phrase parallel? gerund and verb?

repair here is used as a NOUN and gerund also acts as a NOUN..
so phrase is parallel..

2)Isn't the use of 'them' is somewhat ambiguous? As if it's referrin to tourists? Seemin to suggest that the tourists had raised the humidity within themselves?
since we have ONLY one subject, the Object pronoun should refer to that..
here SUBJECT is 'chamber', so 'them' should refer to 'chambers'..

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