In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh

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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2009, 18:13
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled,thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

my question is :

[Reveal] Spoiler:
why "them" is correctly referring to the channels in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by Zarrolou on 13 Jun 2013, 06:24, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: pyramids of giza (OG12) [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2009, 20:05
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I got the answer right immediately, but never paid attention to the us of them. I assume I chose the answer E based on other grammar errors.
Concerning your question, I think, it is because in the answer E, the tourists are not the noun of the second part of the sentence, moisture is the noun, so you can omit the phrase "exhaled by tourists," and the sentence will still make sense, thus them is not referring to tourists obviously, and moreover, I believe it is not referring to moisture as well.
In answers C and D, the use of word them vaguely refers to tourists...
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Re: pyramids of giza (OG12) [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2009, 20:07
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srini123 wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for
cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

A, B and D are out for "due to" and "because of". Both are GMAT unfavorables.
C and E are close. The obvious problem with C is that it has passive construction. C is also not parallel to the last part of the sentence.

Why "them" refers to "chambers' not "tourists" is a matter of logical reasoning. If "them" does not refers to "chambers" but tourist, it makes the sentence so illogical that the meaning would be tourists exhaled moisture within themselves (tourist) not in the chambers and this act raises the humidity within the tourists. In that case, the meaning of the sentence becomes completely illogical.

So E is best...
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Re: pyramids of giza (OG12) [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2009, 06:09
mirzohidjon wrote:
I got the answer right immediately, but never paid attention to the us of them. I assume I chose the answer E based on other grammar errors.
Concerning your question, I think, it is because in the answer E, the tourists are not the noun of the second part of the sentence, moisture is the noun, so you can omit the phrase "exhaled by tourists," and the sentence will still make sense, thus them is not referring to tourists obviously, and moreover, I believe it is not referring to moisture as well.
In answers C and D, the use of word them vaguely refers to tourists...

Thanks, that helps why them in E is not referring to tourists. +1 Kudos
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Re: pyramids of giza (OG12) [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2009, 06:10
GMAT TIGER wrote:
srini123 wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for
cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

A, B and D are out for "due to" and "because of". Both are GMAT unfavorables.
C and E are close. The obvious problem with C is that it has passive construction. C is also not parallel to the last part of the sentence.

Why "them" refers to "chambers' not "tourists" is a matter of logical reasoning. If "them" does not refers to "chambers" but tourist, it makes the sentence so illogical that the meaning would be tourists exhaled moisture within themselves (tourist) not in the chambers and this act raises the humidity within the tourists. In that case, the meaning of the sentence becomes completely illogical.

So E is best...

Thanks GMATTiger, this is another way to see why them is not referring to tourists in E, +1 Kudos to u too
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Re: pyramids of giza (OG12) [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2009, 18:01
Hi there,

Just as srini123, I'm asking myself why "them" could not refer back to tourists... I know that it is pretty unlogical but still a little confusing. On another website I found a solution to this very problem with the following general rule:

Quote:
RULE: If a noun is neither subject or object of main clause/sentence then it doesn't introduce pronoun ambiguity in that sentence.

Can someone confirm that this is generally true. I'm afraid that this is wrong but maybe we can improve the definition in some way

Thanks
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Re: pyramids of giza (OG12) [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2011, 18:31
I don't think that the explanation given by GMAT Tiger is enough. There must be a grammatical explanation, not only logical.

Anyone who can answer the question, please?:why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)

Thanks!
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Re: pyramids of giza (OG12) [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2011, 21:23
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Quote:
RULE: If a noun is neither subject nor object of main clause/sentence then it doesn't introduce pronoun ambiguity in that sentence.

Can this rule be true?; if I change choice E a little bit as follows, what will be the effect and will it still stick to the above rule?

Revised E) because moisture exhaled by tourists during ‘their respiration’ had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

What will the pronoun ‘their’ refer to in the slightly revised version? Tourists or chambers? Logically of course to tourists, becos, the chambers can not respire after all. However, As per rule, ‘their’ should first refer to the subject of the main sentence, namely, ‘the chambers’.

Can the quoted rule be universal? How can we exclude pronoin anbiguity other than by
logic?
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Re: pyramids of giza (OG12) [#permalink]

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22 May 2011, 02:19
Can someone answer to daagh's question, it is very relevant...

daagh wrote:
Quote:
RULE: If a noun is neither subject nor object of main clause/sentence then it doesn't introduce pronoun ambiguity in that sentence.

Can this rule be true?; if I change choice E a little bit as follows, what will be the effect and will it still stick to the above rule?

Revised E) because moisture exhaled by tourists during ‘their respiration’ had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

What will the pronoun ‘their’ refer to in the slightly revised version? Tourists or chambers? Logically of course to tourists, becos, the chambers can not respire after all. However, As per rule, ‘their’ should first refer to the subject of the main sentence, namely, ‘the chambers’.

Can the quoted rule be universal? How can we exclude pronoin anbiguity other than by
logic?

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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2012, 20:00
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The answer choice I picked was E:

A. There are a few problems I noticed in this answer choice. Firstly, the pronoun "its" refers back to chambers, but chambers is plural. Therefore, there is a problem with the number of the pronoun. I also did not like the use of "which" as a modifier here because it seems to modify tourists and not the phrase "moisture exhaled by tourists." Finally, the word "so" is unnecessary.

B. The first problem I noticed was "had exhaled." The use of past perfect tense is not needed when simple past would be perfectly sufficient. Also, "would crystallize" is not parallel to the last phrase.

C. "Would crystallize" is not parallel to the last phrase.

D. Again the last phrases are not parallel.

Therefore, I am left with the answer choice E.

In choice C and D, the word "them" is separated from tourists and chambers by a clause. Therefore, I thought this pronoun was ambiguous. If you notice in choice E, it makes logical sense that "them" can only refer to chambers.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2012, 18:34
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I understand why A,B and D are out. Can you use one of the 10 core frameworks to explain C vs E?

Look at X&Y consistency when you see the keyword "and" after the underlined portion.

You notice the second half says "...and fungus was growing on the walls"

So whatever is to the left of the word "and" needs to be consistent.

Between (C) and (E) - which would you choose?

(C): "..such that salt from the stone would crystallize"

(E): "..to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing"

Between the two, we need (E) so we get:

"[X] was crystallizing and [y] was growing"

So as you can see, this is simply an X&Y consistency question.

We've also posted a video solution to this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/gmat-practice-t ... /(OG12-006)%20(OG13-008)%20-%20Pyramid%20Chambers/question/1844

Last edited by GMATPill on 16 Mar 2014, 10:46, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2012, 04:52
||

E

n late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the
Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for
cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by
tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so
that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus
was growing on the walls.

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised
the humidity within them to such levels that salt
from the stone was crystallizing
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2012, 05:10
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(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
1: Modifier Error - which refers to tourists
2: Pronoun Number - "its" should refer to "chambers" - thus number error.
3: Meaning - Use of "due to" implies that the closure of chambers was caused by moisture. This is not correct because closure was caused by the effect of the moisture as explained in choice E.

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
1: Verb tense - had exhaled is incorrect verb tense.
2: Parallelism - "salt would crystallize" is not parallel to "fungus was growing".
3: Meaning - Use of "due to" implies that the closure of chambers was caused by moisture. This is not correct because closure was caused by the effect of the moisture as explained in choice E.

(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
1: Verb Tense - " were exhaling" is incorrect verb tense; "had raised" is incorrect verb tense.
2: Parallelism - "salt would crystallize" is not parallel to "fungus was growing".

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
1: Modifier Error - "raising humidity" appears to modify "tourists" - incorrect
2: Parallelism - "salt crystallize" is not parallel to "fungus was growing".

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing
Correct.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2013, 03:25
I don't think anyone has given a satisfactory reply to the question posed below ?

Can anyone answer the question, please?:why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2013, 09:09
soaringAlone wrote:
I don't think anyone has given a satisfactory reply to the question posed below ?

Can anyone answer the question, please?:why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)

I believe, its more of meaning. Initially we talk about the chamber and then present a contrast or a subordinator 'because'. This means that the chambers were closed because the tourists did something. What did they do? 'exhaled moisture' which caused stone to blah blah... so 'them' must refer to chambers.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2013, 05:46
The usage of "so as to" in option D is it an incorrect usage? Appears a lot in official question... Can anyone explain?

Pretty easy question just interested in usage of "so as to"
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2013, 01:49
fozzzy wrote:
The usage of "so as to" in option D is it an incorrect usage? Appears a lot in official question... Can anyone explain?

Pretty easy question just interested in usage of "so as to"

I think its perfectly fine

For ex:
We do X so as to gain Y.

Hope it helps!
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2013, 20:59
this has been a very common question for me now, i see this almost everywhere. Any significance in particular?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2013, 21:00
thanks GMAT Pill for the reply, it did help a lot
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2013, 02:50
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled,thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

whenever you see parallel marker "and" always check if in current context is there any list? if yes...then you have to maintain symmetry to the both side of and...and this is what we have to do here!!
1.right side of "and" is ---> fungus was growing
2. hence left side of "and" should be ----> was crystallizing

thus we left with only two choices A & E
in Option A,Modifier its is not a correct usage since "its"(singular) is trying to refer "tourists" (plural)

so E is the correct choice..
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh   [#permalink] 17 Jul 2013, 02:50

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