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In North America there has been an explosion of public

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In North America there has been an explosion of public [#permalink] New post 15 May 2012, 05:16
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In North America there has been an explosion of public interest in, and enjoyment of,opera over the last three decades. The evidence of this explosion is that of the 70 or so professional opera companies currently active in North America,45 were founded over the course of the last 30 years.

The reasoning above assumes which one of the following?

a) All of the 70 professional opera companies are commercially viable options.

b) There were fewer than 45 professional opera companies that had been active 30 years ago and that ceased operations during the last 30 years.

c) There has not been a corresponding increase in the number of professional companies devoted to other performing arts.

d) The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has increased over the past three decades.

e) The 45 most recently founded companies were all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.

Can someone provide a reasoning over choice E
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 15 May 2012, 09:56
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imhimanshu wrote:
In North America there has been an explosion of public interest in, and enjoyment of,opera over the last three decades. The evidence of this explosion is that of the 70 or so professional opera companies currently active in North America,45 were founded over the course of the last 30 years.

The reasoning above assumes which one of the following?

a) All of the 70 professional opera companies are commercially viable options.

b) There were fewer than 45 professional opera companies that had been active 30 years ago and that ceased operations during the last 30 years.

c) There has not been a corresponding increase in the number of professional companies devoted to other performing arts.

d) The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has increased over the past three decades.

e) The 45 most recently founded companies were all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.

Can someone provide a reasoning over choice E


You have to focus on the conclusion.
Conclusion: Over the last 30 years, there has been an explosion of interest in Opera.

What does that mean? It means that the interest has increased manifold in the last 30 yrs (focus on the word 'increased')

How does the author support his argument? By saying that out of the current 70 opera companies, 45 were founded in the last 30 yrs i.e. much more than half were found in the last 30 yrs.
What is the assumption? 50 opera companies did not shut shop in the last 30 yrs i.e. more than 45 companies did not close down. You need your assumption to be true for the conclusion to be true. If 50 companies had shut down in the past 30 yrs, we can't say that opera is gaining a following.

Think about it: You say, "Popularity of pizza is increasing every day. Every week, one new pizza place opens up in my neighborhood."
What is your assumption? That 2 pizza places do not shut down everyday in your neighborhood. It that were the case, then we cannot say that pizza is becoming more popular.

You don't need option (E) to be true for the conclusion to be true. Say, even if all 45 were not established as a result of enthusiasm (say, only 40 were established as a result of enthusiasm), even then it is possible that interest in opera has increased. You don't need (E) to be true to prove the conclusion. Hence it is not an assumption.
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 15 May 2012, 17:31
Thanks Karishma for the explanation..:-)
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
imhimanshu wrote:
In North America there has been an explosion of public interest in, and enjoyment of,opera over the last three decades. The evidence of this explosion is that of the 70 or so professional opera companies currently active in North America,45 were founded over the course of the last 30 years.

The reasoning above assumes which one of the following?

a) All of the 70 professional opera companies are commercially viable options.

b) There were fewer than 45 professional opera companies that had been active 30 years ago and that ceased operations during the last 30 years.

c) There has not been a corresponding increase in the number of professional companies devoted to other performing arts.

d) The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has increased over the past three decades.

e) The 45 most recently founded companies were all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.

Can someone provide a reasoning over choice E


You have to focus on the conclusion.
Conclusion: Over the last 30 years, there has been an explosion of interest in Opera.

What does that mean? It means that the interest has increased manifold in the last 30 yrs (focus on the word 'increased')

How does the author support his argument? By saying that out of the current 70 opera companies, 45 were founded in the last 30 yrs i.e. much more than half were found in the last 30 yrs.
What is the assumption? 50 opera companies did not shut shop in the last 30 yrs i.e. more than 45 companies did not close down. You need your assumption to be true for the conclusion to be true. If 50 companies had shut down in the past 30 yrs, we can't say that opera is gaining a following.

Think about it: You say, "Popularity of pizza is increasing every day. Every week, one new pizza place opens up in my neighborhood."
What is your assumption? That 2 pizza places do not shut down everyday in your neighborhood. It that were the case, then we cannot say that pizza is becoming more popular.

You don't need option (E) to be true for the conclusion to be true. Say, even if all 45 were not established as a result of enthusiasm (say, only 40 were established as a result of enthusiasm), even then it is possible that interest in opera has increased. You don't need (E) to be true to prove the conclusion. Hence it is not an assumption.

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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 15 May 2012, 22:19
so everything here is based on the conclusion
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 19 May 2012, 03:07
A good one... I also went for E. Above explanation makes me come back to B.
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 19 May 2012, 08:58
I read somewhere that there is an assumption negation technique. Can I use that here?
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 19 May 2012, 23:57
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meatdumpling wrote:
I read somewhere that there is an assumption negation technique. Can I use that here?


You might have read about it in Veritas CR book. Assumption is a necessary missing premise. It is necessary for the conclusion to be true. Assumption negation technique considers the options one by one. You negate the option and see whether your conclusion can still hold. If it can, it means the option is not an assumption (because assumption is a premise that SHOULD be true for the conclusion to be true)

You do not use this technique on all the options. Say, two options are looking good. Use it only on those two (it takes some time so you would be using too much time to answer the question if you use it on every option)

Your assumption here is " There were [highlight]fewer than 45[/highlight] professional opera companies that had been active 30 years ago and that ceased operations during the last 30 years."

Negate it " There were [highlight]more than 45[/highlight] professional opera companies that had been active 30 years ago and that ceased operations during the last 30 years."

Can you still say there has been an explosion of interest in the last 30 yrs?
45 new companies were founded in the last 30 yrs but more than 45 (or equal to 45, doesn't matter) closed down. Now your conclusion cannot be true; hence, this option is the assumption.
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 21 May 2012, 01:47
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
meatdumpling wrote:
I read somewhere that there is an assumption negation technique. Can I use that here?


You might have read about it in Veritas CR book. Assumption is a necessary missing premise. It is necessary for the conclusion to be true. Assumption negation technique considers the options one by one. You negate the option and see whether your conclusion can still hold. If it can, it means the option is not an assumption (because assumption is a premise that SHOULD be true for the conclusion to be true)

You do not use this technique on all the options. Say, two options are looking good. Use it only on those two (it takes some time so you would be using too much time to answer the question if you use it on every option)

Your assumption here is " There were [highlight]fewer than 45[/highlight] professional opera companies that had been active 30 years ago and that ceased operations during the last 30 years."

Negate it " There were [highlight]more than 45[/highlight] professional opera companies that had been active 30 years ago and that ceased operations during the last 30 years."

Can you still say there has been an explosion of interest in the last 30 yrs?
45 new companies were founded in the last 30 yrs but more than 45 (or equal to 45, doesn't matter) closed down. Now your conclusion cannot be true; hence, this option is the assumption.


Thank you Karishma. Your explanation is extremely helpful in understanding the concept.
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 21 May 2012, 05:14
Thanks Karishma for explaining the ANT.
I understand the above explanation given for ANT. I have read in the Veritas CR book that after Negate the choice in such a manner that newly created choice should be logically opposite of the original choice.

I tried this ANT for choice E.
Original Choice -
The 45 most recently founded companies were all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.

As per me, after applying ANT, choice E becomes,
The 45 most recently founded companies were NOT all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.
However, as per your below explanation, the ANT should be focusing on the number 45, not on verb = were established.
Can you discuss this in detail. I understand the below quoted reasoning, nonetheless.

VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
You don't need option (E) to be true for the conclusion to be true. Say, even if all 45 were not established as a result of enthusiasm (say, only 40 were established as a result of enthusiasm), even then it is possible that interest in opera has increased. You don't need (E) to be true to prove the conclusion. Hence it is not an assumption.

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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 21 May 2012, 08:11
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imhimanshu wrote:
Thanks Karishma for explaining the ANT.
I understand the above explanation given for ANT. I have read in the Veritas CR book that after Negate the choice in such a manner that newly created choice should be logically opposite of the original choice.

I tried this ANT for choice E.
Original Choice -
The 45 most recently founded companies were all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.

As per me, after applying ANT, choice E becomes,
The 45 most recently founded companies were NOT all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.
However, as per your below explanation, the ANT should be focusing on the number 45, not on verb = were established.
Can you discuss this in detail. I understand the below quoted reasoning, nonetheless.



Your negation is correct. You have negated the 45 as well. "All" stands for the 45 companies. "were not all" (it means not all 45) established as a result of enthusiasm...

I could have negated the correct option as
"There were not fewer than 45 ..." which is awkward. So instead, I made it "more than (or equal to) 45"
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 22 May 2012, 03:25
chose B as the answer. It took some time. i eliminated A C D because they were off the scope. between E & B, B seemed a stronger assumption. Also E had the phrase all 45 which was a little extreme. Had the answer option some of the 45.. then it would have been a real tough one.
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 22 May 2012, 03:28
on second thoughts, i think if there was the modified option E as stated above it would have been a tie between B&E. Any ideas on this guys?
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 31 May 2012, 03:06
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
imhimanshu wrote:
Thanks Karishma for explaining the ANT.
I understand the above explanation given for ANT. I have read in the Veritas CR book that after Negate the choice in such a manner that newly created choice should be logically opposite of the original choice.

I tried this ANT for choice E.
Original Choice -
The 45 most recently founded companies were all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.

As per me, after applying ANT, choice E becomes,
The 45 most recently founded companies were NOT all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.
However, as per your below explanation, the ANT should be focusing on the number 45, not on verb = were established.
Can you discuss this in detail. I understand the below quoted reasoning, nonetheless.



Your negation is correct. You have negated the 45 as well. "All" stands for the 45 companies. "were not all" (it means not all 45) established as a result of enthusiasm...

I could have negated the correct option as
"There were not fewer than 45 ..." which is awkward. So instead, I made it "more than (or equal to) 45"


hello karishma, excellent explanation. I was stuck between B and E.

I, however, eliminated E by the extreme word all. My resoning for the same is below.

The 45 most recently founded companies were NOT all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.

This statement implies that not all but few companies established as a result of increased enthusiasm on the part of audience. This statement in fact supports the argument rather than weakning the same.
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 04 Jun 2012, 23:43
imhimanshu wrote:
In North America there has been an explosion of public interest in, and enjoyment of,opera over the last three decades. The evidence of this explosion is that of the 70 or so professional opera companies currently active in North America,45 were founded over the course of the last 30 years.

The reasoning above assumes which one of the following?

a) All of the 70 professional opera companies are commercially viable options.

b) There were fewer than 45 professional opera companies that had been active 30 years ago and that ceased operations during the last 30 years.

c) There has not been a corresponding increase in the number of professional companies devoted to other performing arts.

d) The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has increased over the past three decades.

e) The 45 most recently founded companies were all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.

Can someone provide a reasoning over choice E


Conclusion: There has been an explosion of public interest in opera over the last 30 years. Evidence: 70 professional opera companies currently active in NA, 45 were found over 30 years.

Negate choice B: there were MORE THAN (or EQUAL TO) 45 opera companies that had been active 30 years ago and that ceased operations during the last 30 years. With this negated statement, over than half of opera ceased operation during the last 30 years will be against the argument.

In choice E, the 45 most recently founded companies were NOT all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience. => This negated statement does not affect anything to the argument because this answer choice talk about the enthusiasm, not the opera, which is the center of the conclusion.
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2012, 02:55
imhimanshu wrote:
In North America there has been an explosion of public interest in, and enjoyment of,opera over the last three decades. The evidence of this explosion is that of the 70 or so professional opera companies currently active in North America,45 were founded over the course of the last 30 years.

The reasoning above assumes which one of the following?

a) All of the 70 professional opera companies are commercially viable options.

b) There were fewer than 45 professional opera companies that had been active 30 years ago and that ceased operations during the last 30 years.

c) There has not been a corresponding increase in the number of professional companies devoted to other performing arts.

d) The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has increased over the past three decades.

e) The 45 most recently founded companies were all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience.

Can someone provide a reasoning over choice E


The giveaway word is ALL. If E were framed in this way "SOME of the 45 most recently founded companies were all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience" that response would be a stronger contender for a correct assumption than E is.

Negating B, the correct answer, basically rips the argument because it would imply that having 70 active professional opera companies is nothing spectacular or historic and thus cannot be used an indicator of a recent boom in operatic interest.
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2012, 21:58
Karishma/OldFritz

d) The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has increased over the past three decades.

how did you eliminate option D

if I negate D it will look like

The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has decreased over the past three decades.

This weakens the conclusion that there has been a explosion of interest
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 13 Jun 2012, 09:13
Thanks Karishma for the great explanation... nice question
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Re: In North America there has been an explosion of public [#permalink] New post 18 Nov 2013, 11:31
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 02 Feb 2014, 16:52
Ankit04041987 wrote:
Karishma/OldFritz

d) The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has increased over the past three decades.

how did you eliminate option D

if I negate D it will look like

The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has decreased over the past three decades.

This weakens the conclusion that there has been a explosion of interest


All,

I also thought about D as a viable answer choice after negating
Would someone please clarify what is wrong with this answer choice

Thanks
Cheers
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Re: Opera-Assumption [#permalink] New post 02 Feb 2014, 19:40
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jlgdr wrote:
Ankit04041987 wrote:
Karishma/OldFritz

d) The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has increased over the past three decades.

how did you eliminate option D

if I negate D it will look like

The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has decreased over the past three decades.

This weakens the conclusion that there has been a explosion of interest


All,

I also thought about D as a viable answer choice after negating
Would someone please clarify what is wrong with this answer choice

Thanks
Cheers
J


The negation of (D) is
The size of the average audience at performances by professional opera companies has NOT increased over the past three decades.

Our conclusion can still hold even if this is true and therefore, (D) is not an assumption.

Conclusion: Over the last 30 years, there has been an explosion of interest in Opera.

We are given that 45 new companies were founded in this time. The size of the audience may not have increased because the new companies attracted the new following or size of the audience may have stayed the same because of capacity issues at the opera houses.

Also, absolute number of people visiting a place doesn't give you much info about the increase/decrease in popularity. You need to know the % of population that visits a place over a period of time. Opening up of many such new places hints at increase in popularity because it means that people see profit in the business and believe that it will do well provided they are not replacing the old dying companies and hoping to pull their clientele.
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Re: Opera-Assumption   [#permalink] 02 Feb 2014, 19:40
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