In polluted environments, dolphins gradually accumulated : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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In polluted environments, dolphins gradually accumulated

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Director
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04 May 2008, 11:33
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In polluted environments, dolphins gradually accumulated toxins in their body fat,
and the larger the dolphin the more accumulated toxin it can tolerate. Nearly 80
percent of the toxins a female dolphin has accumulated pass into the fat-rich milk her
nursing calf ingests. Therefore, the unusually high mortality rate among dolphin
calves in the industrially contaminated waters along Florida’s Gulf Coast is probably
the result of their being poisoned by their mother’s milk.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. The survival rate of firstborn dolphin calves in the area along Florida’s Gulf
Coast is highest for those whose mothers were killed before they were
weaned.
B. The rate at which adult dolphins living in the waters along Florida’s Gulf
Coast accumulate toxins is no higher than that of adult dolphins in comparably
polluted waters elsewhere.
C. Among dolphin calves born in the area along Florida’s Gulf Coast, the
mortality rate is highest among those with living siblings.
D. As dolphins age, they accumulate toxins from the environment more slowly
than when they were young.
E. Dolphins, like other marine mammals, have a higher proportion of body fat
than do most land mammals.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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04 May 2008, 11:36
saravalli wrote:
In polluted environments, dolphins gradually accumulated toxins in their body fat,
and the larger the dolphin the more accumulated toxin it can tolerate. Nearly 80
percent of the toxins a female dolphin has accumulated pass into the fat-rich milk her
nursing calf ingests. Therefore, the unusually high mortality rate among dolphin
calves in the industrially contaminated waters along Florida’s Gulf Coast is probably
the result of their being poisoned by their mother’s milk.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. The survival rate of firstborn dolphin calves in the area along Florida’s Gulf
Coast is highest for those whose mothers were killed before they were
weaned.
B. The rate at which adult dolphins living in the waters along Florida’s Gulf
Coast accumulate toxins is no higher than that of adult dolphins in comparably
polluted waters elsewhere.
C. Among dolphin calves born in the area along Florida’s Gulf Coast, the
mortality rate is highest among those with living siblings.
D. As dolphins age, they accumulate toxins from the environment more slowly
than when they were young.
E. Dolphins, like other marine mammals, have a higher proportion of body fat
than do most land mammals.

This is a tough one. I am between C and D, but I am going to go with C. If they have living siblings, chances are that their mother was not contaminated as heavily as most.
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04 May 2008, 11:59
Personally, I was deciding btwn A and C ... on d day i probably would have chosen A
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04 May 2008, 13:31
A clearly strngthens the argument by saying that those calves who have not taken mothers milk so not poisoned and have highest survival rate .
Others weaken or have no effect on argument
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04 May 2008, 15:34
I would choose A also. It shows that not having the mothers milk that is contaminated and can survive. Although, the question remains, can they live without milk all together? Or does it matter?
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04 May 2008, 17:50
I would also choose A . If the mothers were killed before they calphs were weaned ( fed with milk ) it clearly shows that milk was responsible for the deaths and strengthens the argument.
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04 May 2008, 18:22
A too,

If saravalli still not catch the point why A, let me know!
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04 May 2008, 18:28
You know I did not understand the meaning of 'weaned'. (poor vocab)
I immediately recalled the CR tip, which said, if you don't understand a cryptic word, then don't go for it..becoz gmat guys wantedly plant some wrong choices with such words..but ..you see what happened today..I again dug my own grave by using too much of strategy....

Thanks guys. OA is A
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05 May 2008, 06:39
Straight A buddy.
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05 May 2008, 07:46
It helps me in these problems to zero in on the conclusion which in this case is:

Therefore, the unusually high mortality rate among dolphin
calves in the industrially contaminated waters along Florida’s Gulf Coast is probably
the result of their being poisoned by their mother’s milk.

So we need to strengthen the fact that the mother's milk is causing the calves do die.

This makes getting the answer much easier because in this case there is only 1 answer that even address the calves mortality rate and the mothers milk.
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06 Jun 2014, 22:19
Hi,

As the conclusion states that poisoned mother milk cause high motality rate of dolphins calves.

Keeping this in mind. How can we eliminate the option C,which states that " Among dolphin calves born in the area along Florida’s Gulf Coast, the mortality rate is highest among those with living siblings" Doesn't that implies that living with siblings means ,there would be presence of mother here,and mother would be feeding poisoned milk.

isn't it?

Thanks
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12 Jun 2014, 01:06
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi,

As the conclusion states that poisoned mother milk cause high motality rate of dolphins calves.

Keeping this in mind. How can we eliminate the option C,which states that " Among dolphin calves born in the area along Florida’s Gulf Coast, the mortality rate is highest among those with living siblings" Doesn't that implies that living with siblings means ,there would be presence of mother here,and mother would be feeding poisoned milk.

isn't it?

Thanks

Hi Nitin

C, if anything, could be considered a weakener. The question asks you to strengthen the argument that the unusually high mortality rate among dolphin calves in the industrially contaminated waters along Florida’s Gulf Coast is probably the result of their being poisoned by their mother’s milk.

But option C tells us that mortality rate is highest for these calves who have living siblings. This means that both the calf (which subsequently died) and its living siblings could have had the same mother’s milk but while its siblings survived, it died. So it indicates that poisoning from mother’s milk is not the likely cause here for the high mortality rate of calves.

Regards
Prashant
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23 Jul 2014, 07:24
mymba99 wrote:
In polluted environments, dolphins gradually accumulated toxins in their body fat,
and the larger the dolphin the more accumulated toxin it can tolerate. Nearly 80
percent of the toxins a female dolphin has accumulated pass into the fat-rich milk her
nursing calf ingests. Therefore, the unusually high mortality rate among dolphin
calves in the industrially contaminated waters along Florida’s Gulf Coast is probably
the result of their being poisoned by their mother’s milk.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. The survival rate of firstborn dolphin calves in the area along Florida’s Gulf
Coast is highest for those whose mothers were killed before they were
weaned.
B. The rate at which adult dolphins living in the waters along Florida’s Gulf
Coast accumulate toxins is no higher than that of adult dolphins in comparably
polluted waters elsewhere.
C. Among dolphin calves born in the area along Florida’s Gulf Coast, the
mortality rate is highest among those with living siblings.
D. As dolphins age, they accumulate toxins from the environment more slowly
than when they were young.
E. Dolphins, like other marine mammals, have a higher proportion of body fat
than do most land mammals.

I would have chosen A.

Other options weaken the argument or are not as effective
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24 Aug 2016, 21:17
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24 Aug 2016, 21:32
In polluted environments, dolphins gradually accumulated toxins in their body fat,
and the larger the dolphin the more accumulated toxin it can tolerate. Nearly 80
percent of the toxins a female dolphin has accumulated pass into the fat-rich milk her
nursing calf ingests. Therefore, the unusually high mortality rate among dolphin
calves in the industrially contaminated waters along Florida’s Gulf Coast is probably
the result of their being poisoned by their mother’s milk.

Prethinking

1> if you can prove that dolphin who are not so fat shows lower mortality among dolphin calves.
2> If you can discard any other factor that can lead to high mortality.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. The survival rate of firstborn dolphin calves in the area along Florida’s Gulf
Coast is highest for those whose mothers were killed before they were
weaned.

This is reverse thinking or pre-thinking 1. Mother killed => no milk => high mortality rate.
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26 Aug 2016, 04:36
I also chose A.

Can anyone please tell what is the OA?
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26 Aug 2016, 10:58
abhimahna wrote:
I also chose A.

Can anyone please tell what is the OA?

Re: In polluted environments, dolphins gradually accumulated   [#permalink] 26 Aug 2016, 10:58
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