In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening

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In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2013, 10:51
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In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening disease, a false positive result indicates that an fetus has spina bifida when, in fact, it does not; a false negative result indicates that a fetus does not have spina bifida when, in fact, it does. To detect spina bifida most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.

Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?

(A)All laboratory tests to detect spina bifida have the same proportion of false negative results.
(B)The laboratory test that has the lowest proportions of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect spina bifida.
(C)In treating spina bifida patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
(D)The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect spina bifida.
(E)The accepted treatment for spina bifida does not have damaging side effects.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by guerrero25 on 25 Aug 2013, 21:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2013, 12:43
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Fact: There are two types of false results: False negative and False positive. Total false = False positive + False negative.
Conclusion: To detect spine bifida most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.

Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?

(A)All laboratory tests to detect spine bifida have the same proportion of false negative results.
Correct. IMO
Total false = False positive + False negative.
If the proportions of false negative are the same. We just need to compare the proportion of false positive. The comparison is valid.

(B)The laboratory test that has the lowest proportions of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect spina bifida.
Wrong. Out of scope. Nothing about “side effects”.

(C)In treating spina bifida patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
Wrong. Out of scope. Nothing about “result in loss of life”.

(D)The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect spina bifida.
Wrong. Even when the inconclusive test results is equal, we can’t say the use of laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results is good. What if the proportion of false positive is lower, but the proportion of false negative is higher. Thus, we do not know the results of the lab is MOST accurate or not.

(E)The accepted treatment for spina bifida does not have damaging side effects.
Wrong. Out of scope. Nothing about “side effects”.

Waiting for OA.
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Re: In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2013, 18:00
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prenatal testing for spina bifida (SP)

a False Positive (FP) result - - - indicates that a fetus has SP, but infact it does not have
a False Negative (FN) result - - - indicates that a fetus does not has SP, but infact it does have

To detect SP accuratley, authors says that Physicians should use the laboratory test that has lowest proportion of FP results

Which of the following strengthen authour recommendation

A - choice A - this is right choice, as the proportion of lower FN results should also be there and it correctly strengthens the case.
B - choice B - Wrong comparison, as to strengthen the case we should be comparing with prenatal test which is not laboratory test. in this choice it compares with other laboratory tests
C - choice C - Out of Scope - Talks about treating SP
D - choice D - Weakens the recommendation - i.e. proportion of inconclusive test = all laboratory test
E - choice E - Talks about treatment of SP, our concern is on Test results, so OFS
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Re: In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2016, 07:53
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Re: In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2016, 11:53
guerrero25 wrote:
In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening disease, a false positive result indicates that an fetus has spina bifida when, in fact, it does not; a false negative result indicates that a fetus does not have spina bifida when, in fact, it does. To detect spina bifida most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.

Form a table

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Go through the options

A tells all laboratory tests to detect spina bifida have the same proportion of false negative results - So False Negative results cant be our criteria for detection of the diesease.

In mathematics we involve in a concept called maximum minima , say for eg

If x + y = 9 , and y is not equal to 0, find the maximum possible value of x , what do u do, maximize x = 8 and y = 1

Apply the same concept here,

False negative cant be considered , so we must try to minimise the error rate of False Positive.... (A) simply states the same...

So IMHO (A) { using mathematical logic }
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Re: In prenatal testing for spina bifida, a life threatening   [#permalink] 15 Apr 2016, 11:53
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