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# In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used

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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2011, 08:27
guys, I think the main issue here is TIME. I guess this question will not be hard at all for most of you if you're not in the exam room, trying to save time on every easy question.

If the answer E were ordered before D, then, I guess, it would be much easier for everybody. My point is, in order to achieve high performance on the real test, just quickly double check every answer.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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22 May 2011, 23:32
Even though I have attended this question 3 times, I made the same mistake all the three times.

Step 1: Identify the question as the one which is related to parallelism
Step 2: the second clause of the sentence says "partly because". So lets eliminate option (A) and option (B).
Step 3: Let's try to match word to word for parallelism among options (C), (D) and (E). It looks like (C) and (D) are better matches
Step 4: In options (C) and (D), the verb in the underlined clause is not matching the verb in the second clause.
Step 5: Lets re-evaluate option (E). It has the perfect match of the verb i.e "acquire" with "provide".

So, option (E) is the best.

While answering this question, I had a lot of trouble because "because" is not there in option (E) which made my choice a lot difficult.

Even though I had answered this question wrongly, I later learnt that GMAT sometimes offsets complete parallelism.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2011, 17:26
rohansherry wrote:
204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Cattle breeders have used crossbreeding to acquire certain characteristics in their steers.

Didn't these guys get a better phrases than "to acquire"; something like "to infuse". Either way, I couldn't have answered it correctly. "D" was too good to reject.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2012, 04:26
I finally know even options like D fit in perfectly in structure, but E, though unparallel, is ultimately the correct answer.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2012, 05:09
My learning:
Got to take meaning in to consideration as well. I picked E first. it sounded better but chose C because E wasn't (obviously) parallel but C seemed to even though meaning was awkward. Thanks for the explanation T
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2012, 01:55
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

What an annoying question! I was asked to take this on by private message, and I see why it's bothered so many of you. Let's discuss

204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

The thing to remember about PARALLELISM (which is the issue here) is that it is ALL about the parallel markers. You're more concerned with the single word that comes after the parallel marker. From there, things get iffy. The parallel marker here is AND, and the word after it is PARTLY. That's your parallelism. You gotta have another "partly".

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and the "should". This isn't about what "should" happen. The breeders do it SO THAT the steer will acquire certain characteristics.

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and an odd idiom. You don't do something "for the acquisition" of something else, but "in order to acquire" something else.

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
PROBLEM: They don't do it "because of their steers acquiring..." that sounds like they crossbreed AFTER the steers have acquired the characteristics. But they do it IN ORDER that the steers might acquire the characteristics.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
PROBLEM: I know we all want this one because it says "partly because" and doesn't sound as bad as C, but the "should" is still a meaning issue. There's no question of SHOULD here. The issue is meaning. The breeders crossbreed because they WANT something to happen.

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
ANSWER: Yes, I know it isn't as parallel as we'd like. It would be nice to say "partly to X" and "partly to Y" OR "partly because of X" and "partly because of Y". But we don't get that option. This is still parallel enough (with the two "partly"s), and from there it's all about meaning.

Tough one! Hope that helps.

-tommy

Partly to acquire characteristics sounds like breeders would acquire the characteristics. No?
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2013, 13:34
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2013, 08:49
"to acquire" in e is caused by subject "breeder". this is correct
"for acquisition" in b refers to a general action which is not caused by any noun in the main clause. this is not logic.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2014, 08:55
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2015, 13:13
I've solved it this way:
(A) in part... NOT PARALLEL (IT MUST BE PARTLY)
(B) in part... NOT PARALLEL (IT MUST BE PARTLY)
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics WRONG --> Sentences with because structure have following meaning: Because (cause) 1st...., 2nd Effect ( several homes burned down, because of the gas explosion.)
Reverse Logic: Steers have acquired certain characteristics, because of crossbreeding.
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers --> SHOULD changes the meaning, Crosbreeders WANT that their steers .....
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers - CORRECT

Thanks
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In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2015, 21:19
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
Two issues:
1) in part vs partly -> maintain the same structure as these two reasons are parallel.
2) that -> that can be used a pronoun or introducing a subordinate clause and not for a reason.
Remotely "in that" can be used but I guess mostly even that is not preferred.

(B)in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
Two issues:
1) same issue as above.
2) The "crossbreeding" is used for some reasons - one of them is that their steers acquires characteristics. We need an intent to show that and we require to + verb .Besides, other part also have to + verb (to + provide)

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
Plainly, the meaning comes as if their steers acquire certain characteristics by themselves which is not the case.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
"Should be" is not parallel to "to verb" (to provide) and also it is stressing on a point which I think doesn't add any value.

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers ->
Here we can repeat "crossbreeding is said (ellipses - which is not repeated)". Once we add that phrase, it looks perfect
"partly crossbreeding is said to acquire certain characteristics in their steers"
perfectly parallel to the second part as well. - Hence correct

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Last edited by kinjiGC on 09 Jul 2015, 02:17, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2015, 01:40
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

What an annoying question! I was asked to take this on by private message, and I see why it's bothered so many of you. Let's discuss

204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

The thing to remember about PARALLELISM (which is the issue here) is that it is ALL about the parallel markers. You're more concerned with the single word that comes after the parallel marker. From there, things get iffy. The parallel marker here is AND, and the word after it is PARTLY. That's your parallelism. You gotta have another "partly".

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and the "should". This isn't about what "should" happen. The breeders do it SO THAT the steer will acquire certain characteristics.

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and an odd idiom. You don't do something "for the acquisition" of something else, but "in order to acquire" something else.

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
PROBLEM: They don't do it "because of their steers acquiring..." that sounds like they crossbreed AFTER the steers have acquired the characteristics. But they do it IN ORDER that the steers might acquire the characteristics.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
PROBLEM: I know we all want this one because it says "partly because" and doesn't sound as bad as C, but the "should" is still a meaning issue. There's no question of SHOULD here. The issue is meaning. The breeders crossbreed because they WANT something to happen.

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
ANSWER: Yes, I know it isn't as parallel as we'd like. It would be nice to say "partly to X" and "partly to Y" OR "partly because of X" and "partly because of Y". But we don't get that option. This is still parallel enough (with the two "partly"s), and from there it's all about meaning.

Tough one! Hope that helps.

-tommy

can I say that "should" can not used in "because" clause because the meaning can not accept that combination ?

pls, help
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2016, 06:15
hiteshsahni wrote:
I have never read such a use of the word 'acquire' anywhere other than in this question's option E.

'to acquire certain characteristics 'in' their steers'

If I say 'He wants to acquire confidence'. That is obviously correct. Because 'to acquire' means 'to obtain' or 'to get'.
But if I say 'He wants to acquire confidence in his friend'. Is this usage of 'acquire' correct?

That is why I ruled out E. Can someone help please?

Same here couple of years later.

Anyone?

Many thanks,
Jay
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2016, 09:29
MrSobe17 wrote:
hiteshsahni wrote:
I have never read such a use of the word 'acquire' anywhere other than in this question's option E.

'to acquire certain characteristics 'in' their steers'

If I say 'He wants to acquire confidence'. That is obviously correct. Because 'to acquire' means 'to obtain' or 'to get'.
But if I say 'He wants to acquire confidence in his friend'. Is this usage of 'acquire' correct?

That is why I ruled out E. Can someone help please?

Same here couple of years later.

Anyone?

Many thanks,
Jay

Perhaps the use is uncommon, but maybe because people don't commonly read about breeding steer for certain characteristics! More importantly, all the other options were grammatically incorrect:

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics Wrong, not parallel
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers Wrong, not parallel
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics Awkward wording, ing verb is inferior to the infinitive
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers Introduces unnecessary subjunctive
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers Correct

Making up rules is a real thing for SC; I do it all the time. But in the case of E, it's parallel, the verb is set up correctly, and the breeders are acquiring [something], which is a correct usage.
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In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2016, 18:51
I love this question, as it demonstrates how important it is to understand the meaning in a SC passage. If you think about it for a moment, to maintain the meaning, there is no other way of using the "partly" parallelism than what's written in the correct answer choice.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2016, 08:18
This question displays why sometimes blindly following formulaic rules for SC can sometimes distract / confuse etc (a trap that i myself have fallen into many times especially at the middle stage of study). I have now incorporated "meaning" as a SC category when answering questions in order to overcome this stumbling block

Step 2 - Quick scan of answers - no clear split (use of their / its would be an obvious one) so lets re-read and paraphrase sentance

- Farmers have increasingly used crossbreeding - both for the purpose of giving their steers certain chartacteristics and because crossbreeding => vigour
- Distil... The farmers choose crossbreeding ... why? so that steers gain certain characteristcs

Step 3. Therefore C/D eliminated ... the farmers choose crossbreeding to give steers characteristics, not as a result of steers acquiring characteristics
Step 4. A / B eliminated as in part is not parrallel to partly
= E

There are many other approaches but this for me is the quickest way to approach meaning questions ... 1. analyse 2.understand 3.choose answers that agree on meaning 4. Identify grammatical/parralelism problems 5. Eliminate 6. Choose

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2016, 01:01
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

What an annoying question! I was asked to take this on by private message, and I see why it's bothered so many of you. Let's discuss

204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

The thing to remember about PARALLELISM (which is the issue here) is that it is ALL about the parallel markers. You're more concerned with the single word that comes after the parallel marker. From there, things get iffy. The parallel marker here is AND, and the word after it is PARTLY. That's your parallelism. You gotta have another "partly".

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and the "should". This isn't about what "should" happen. The breeders do it SO THAT the steer will acquire certain characteristics.

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and an odd idiom. You don't do something "for the acquisition" of something else, but "in order to acquire" something else.

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
PROBLEM: They don't do it "because of their steers acquiring..." that sounds like they crossbreed AFTER the steers have acquired the characteristics. But they do it IN ORDER that the steers might acquire the characteristics.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
PROBLEM: I know we all want this one because it says "partly because" and doesn't sound as bad as C, but the "should" is still a meaning issue. There's no question of SHOULD here. The issue is meaning. The breeders crossbreed because they WANT something to happen.

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
ANSWER: Yes, I know it isn't as parallel as we'd like. It would be nice to say "partly to X" and "partly to Y" OR "partly because of X" and "partly because of Y". But we don't get that option. This is still parallel enough (with the two "partly"s), and from there it's all about meaning.

Tough one! Hope that helps.

-tommy

hi, i don't get why exactly we can't say do ssomething "for the acquisition" of. thanks in advance!
Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used   [#permalink] 14 Nov 2016, 01:01

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