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# In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive

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In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2011, 11:26
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In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive artificial kidney implant is a boon to modern medicine. These critics should remember that the first heart transplants stimulated an enormous amount of beneficial medical research, even though the transplant technique was later rejected in favor of less invasive surgical procedures.

The author defends the artificial kidney implant against the critics by

A. attacking her opponents' method of circular reasoning
B. implying an analogy between the benefits of the artificial kidney implant and the benefits of the early heart transplants
C. pointing out a contradiction implicit in their criticism of the implant's high cost
D. criticizing the professional objectivity of her opponents rather than their claim
E. implying an analogy between the critics' opposition to the artificial kidney implant and their opposition to the early heart transplants
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: CR - Assumption 700 level [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2011, 11:52
Clean B .
The author is just trying to bring in similarities between the benefits of 2 different treatments.
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Re: CR - Assumption 700 level [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2011, 11:56
i picked e
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Re: CR - Assumption 700 level [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2011, 12:01
bschool83 wrote:
In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive artificial kidney implant is a boon to modern medicine. These critics should remember that the first heart transplants stimulated an enormous amount of beneficial medical research, even though the transplant technique was later rejected in favor of less invasive surgical procedures

The author defends the artificial kidney implant against the critics by

A. attacking her opponents' method of circular reasoning
B. implying an analogy between the benefits of the artificial kidney implant and the benefits of the early heart transplants
C. pointing out a contradiction implicit in their criticism of the implant's high cost
D. criticizing the professional objectivity of her opponents rather than their claim
E. implying an analogy between the critics' opposition to the artificial kidney implant and their opposition to the early heart transplants

B. Author compares transplants methods (kidney vs heart transplants). and compares the benefits of each type.
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Re: CR - Assumption 700 level [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2011, 18:28
B is correct.

E is wrong because it mentions that critics opposed the early heart transplant(use of " ...and their opposition....). The argument never mentions anything like that.

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In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2016, 08:24
bschool83 wrote:
In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive artificial kidney implant is a boon to modern medicine. These critics should remember that the first heart transplants stimulated an enormous amount of beneficial medical research, even though the transplant technique was later rejected in favor of less invasive surgical procedures.

The author defends the artificial kidney implant against the critics by

A. attacking her opponents' method of circular reasoning
B. implying an analogy between the benefits of the artificial kidney implant and the benefits of the early heart transplants
C. pointing out a contradiction implicit in their criticism of the implant's high cost
D. criticizing the professional objectivity of her opponents rather than their claim
E. implying an analogy between the critics' opposition to the artificial kidney implant and their opposition to the early heart transplants

Purely the game is between B and E here....I was able to pick B but still i can't clearly eliminate choices A and E....

Can anyone please explain what is circular reasoning(Option A)?

And What Option E means?

Experts pls help...

Thanks,
Arun
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Re: In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2016, 21:33
ArunpriyanJ wrote:
bschool83 wrote:
In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive artificial kidney implant is a boon to modern medicine. These critics should remember that the first heart transplants stimulated an enormous amount of beneficial medical research, even though the transplant technique was later rejected in favor of less invasive surgical procedures.

The author defends the artificial kidney implant against the critics by

A. attacking her opponents' method of circular reasoning
B. implying an analogy between the benefits of the artificial kidney implant and the benefits of the early heart transplants
C. pointing out a contradiction implicit in their criticism of the implant's high cost
D. criticizing the professional objectivity of her opponents rather than their claim
E. implying an analogy between the critics' opposition to the artificial kidney implant and their opposition to the early heart transplants

Purely the game is between B and E here....I was able to pick B but still i can't clearly eliminate choices A and E....

Can anyone please explain what is circular reasoning(Option A)?

And What Option E means?

Experts pls help...

Thanks,
Arun

Hi Arun,

However, only one point I would differ :- E should not be tempting and can be eliminated immediately..

If you go through the analogy of heart transplant, the author never talks of opposition.
Whereas the choice talks and compares opposition to both the transplants.
analogy is between the two transplants and implying that the side benefits accrued from the second should be seen in the first one too..

Circular reasoning means A is because of B and B occurs when A is present...
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Re: In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive [#permalink]

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11 Feb 2016, 23:29
ArunpriyanJ wrote:
bschool83 wrote:
In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive artificial kidney implant is a boon to modern medicine. These critics should remember that the first heart transplants stimulated an enormous amount of beneficial medical research, even though the transplant technique was later rejected in favor of less invasive surgical procedures.

The author defends the artificial kidney implant against the critics by

A. attacking her opponents' method of circular reasoning
B. implying an analogy between the benefits of the artificial kidney implant and the benefits of the early heart transplants
C. pointing out a contradiction implicit in their criticism of the implant's high cost
D. criticizing the professional objectivity of her opponents rather than their claim
E. implying an analogy between the critics' opposition to the artificial kidney implant and their opposition to the early heart transplants

Purely the game is between B and E here....I was able to pick B but still i can't clearly eliminate choices A and E....

Can anyone please explain what is circular reasoning(Option A)?

And What Option E means?

Experts pls help...

Thanks,
Arun

Responding to a pm:

Analogy means "similarity".

Now focus on the argument:
The new, expensive artificial kidney implant is a boon to modern medicine.
Critics should remember that the first heart transplants stimulated an enormous amount of beneficial medical research, even though the transplant technique was later rejected in favor of less invasive surgical procedures

So the author is implying that first heart transplants were very beneficial because they stimulated research. Similarly, artificial kidney implant is a boon too. The implication is that it will stimulate lots of research too. So the procedure itself may be difficult and expensive but it will lead to research on more useful procedures.

B. implying an analogy between the benefits of the artificial kidney implant and the benefits of the early heart transplants
So the author is defending the procedure by implying similarity between the early heart transplants and artificial kidney implant. This is correct.

E. implying an analogy between the critics' opposition to the artificial kidney implant and their opposition to the early heart transplants
The author does not say that these same critics were opposing early heart transplants. Had the argument said that, then it would have implied an analogy (similarity) between the critics' opposition.

Circular reasoning is a logical fallacy (false logic). You begin with what you are trying to prove. Circular argument uses its own conclusion as one of its premises.

e.g.

He told me that he doesn't lie.
He always speaks the truth.
Hence, he speaks the truth.
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Re: In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive   [#permalink] 11 Feb 2016, 23:29
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# In spite of what its critics say, the new, expensive

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