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In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands

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In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands on the cardiovascular systems of animals. Gravitational pressure can cause blood to poolinthe lower regions of the body, making it difficult to circulate blood to critical organs such as the brain. Terrestrial snakes, in particular, exhibit adaptations that aid in circulating blood against the
force of gravity.

The problem confronting terrestrial snakes is best illustrated by what happens to sea snakes when removed from their supportive medium. Because the vertical pressure gradients within the blood vessels are counteracted by similar pressure gradients in the surrounding water, the distribution of blood throughout the body of sea snakes remains about
the same regardless of their orientation in space, provided they remain in the ocean. When removed from the water and tilted at various angles with the head up, however, blood pressure at their midpoint drops significantly, and at brain level falls to zero. That many terrestrial snakes in similarspatial orientations do not experience this kind of circulatory
failure suggests that certain adaptations enable them to regulate blood pressure more effectively in those orientations.

One such adaptation is the closer proximity of the terrestrial snake's heart to its head, which helps to ensure circulation to the brain, regardless of the snake's orientation in space. The heart of sea snakes can be located near the middle of the body, a position that minimizes the work entailed in circulating blood to both extremities. In arboreal snakes, however, which dwell in trees and often assume a vertical posture, the average distance from the heart to the head can be as little as 15 percent of overall body length. Such a location
requires that blood circulated to the tail of the snake travel a greater distance back to the heart, a problem solved by another adaptation. When climbing, arboreal snakes often pause
momentarily to wiggle their bodies, causing waves of muscle contraction that advance from the lower torso to the head. By compressing the veins and forcing blood forward, these contractions apparently improve the flow of venous blood returning to the heart.
The passage provides information in support of which of the following assertions?
(A) The disadvantages of an adaptation to a particular feature of an environment often outweigh the advantages of such an adaptation.
(B) An organism's reaction to being placed in an environment to which it is not well adapted can sometimes illustrate the problems that have been solved by the adaptations of organisms indigenous to that environment.
(C) The effectiveness of an organism's adaptation to a particular feature of its environment can only be evaluated by examining the effectiveness with which organisms of other species have adapted to a similar feature of a different environment.
(D) Organisms of the same species that inhabit strikingly different environments will often adapt in remarkably similar ways to the few features of those environments that are common.
(E) Different species of organisms living in the same environment will seldom adapt to features of that environment inthe same way.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


According to the passage, one reason that the distribution of blood in the sea snake changes little while the creature remains in the ocean is that
(A) the heart of the sea snake tends to be located near the center of its body
(B) pressure gradients in the water surrounding the sea snake counter the effects of vertical pressure gradients within its blood vessels
(C) the sea snake assumes a vertical posture less frequently than do the terrestrial and the arboreal snake
(D) the sea snake often relies on waves of muscle contractions to help move blood from the torso to the head
(E) the force of pressure gradients in the water surrounding the sea snake exceeds that of vertical pressure gradients within its circulatory system
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


It can be inferred from the passage that which ofthe following is true of species of terrestrial snakes that often need to assume a vertical posture?
(A) They are more likely to be susceptible to circulatory failure in vertical postures than are sea snakes.
(B) Their hearts are less likely to be located at the midpoint of their bodies than is the case with sea snakes.
(C) They cannot counteract the pooling of blood in lower regions of their bodies as effectively as sea snakes can.
(D) The blood pressure at their midpoint decreases significantly when they are tilted with their heads up.
(E) They are unable to rely on muscle contractions to move venous blood from the lower torso to the head.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


The author describes the behavior of the circulatory system of sea snakes when they are removed from the ocean (see lines 17-20) primarily in order to
(A) illustrate what would occur in the circulatory system of terrestrial snakes without adaptations that enable them to regulate their blood pressure in vertical orientations
(B) explain why arboreal snakes in vertical orientations must rely on muscle contractions to restore blood pressure to the brain
(C) illustrate the effects of circulatory failure on the behavior of arboreal snakes
(D) illustrate the superiority of the circulatory system of the terrestrial snake to that of the sea snake
(E) explain how changes in spatial orientation can adversely affect the circulatory system of snakes with hearts located in relatively close proximity to their heads
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is a true statement about sea snakes?
(A) They frequently rely on waves of muscle contractions from the lower torso to the head to supplement the work of the heart.
(B) They can not effectively regulate their blood pressure when placed in sea water and tilted at an angle with the head pointed downward.
(C) They are more likely to have a heart located in close proximity to their heads than are arboreal snakes.
(D) They become acutely vulnerable to the effects of gravitational pressure on their circulatory system when they are placed in a terrestrial environment.
(E) Their cardiovascular system is not as complicated as that of arboreal snakes.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


The author suggests that which of the following is a disadvantage that results from the location of a snake's heart in close proximity to its head?
(A) A decrease in the efficiency with which the snake regulates the flow of blood to the brain
(B) A decrease in the number of orientations in space that a snake can assume without loss of blood flow to the brain
(C) A decrease in blood pressure at the snake's mid point when it is tilted at various angles with its head up
(D) An increase in the tendency of blood to pool at the snake's head when the snake is tilted at various angles with its head down
(E) An increase in the amount of effort required to distribute blood to and from the snake's tail
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


The primary purpose of the third paragraph is to
(A) introduce a topic that is not discussed earlier in the passage
(B) describe a more efficient method of achieving an effect discussed in the previous paragraph
(C) draw a conclusion based on information elaborated in the previous paragraph
(D) discuss two specific examples of phenomena mentioned at the end of the previous paragraph
(E) introduce evidence that undermines a view reported earlier in the passage
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


In the passage,the author is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?
(A) Explaining adaptations that enable the terrestrial snake to cope with the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system
(B) Comparing the circulatory system of the sea snake with that of the terrestrial snake
(C) Explaining why the circulatory system of the terrestrial snake is different from that of the sea snake
(D) Pointing out features of the terrestrial snake's cardiovascular system that make it superior to that of the sea snake
(E) Explaining how the sea snake is able to neutralize the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2012, 15:42
8:21 Mins
BBBADEDA. All correct. No no confusion at all.
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Re: Line In terrestrial environments, gravity places special [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2012, 18:45
#24 - D

I got this one wrong. I narrowed down to A and D.

I chose A because the end of the 2nd paragraph only mentions one phenomena, namely blood pressure at their midpoint drops significantly.

What in bloody name is the 2nd phenomena?

I chose A.
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2013, 01:52
In the passage,the author is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?
(A) Explaining adaptations that enable the terrestrial snake to cope with the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system
(B) Comparing the circulatory system of the sea snake with that of the terrestrial snake
(C) Explaining why the circulatory system of the terrestrial snake is different from that of the sea snake
(D) Pointing out features of the terrestrial snake's cardiovascular system that make it superior to that of the sea snake
(E) Explaining how the sea snake is able to neutralize the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system

For this question, I got confused between A & C. I choose E but OA is A.

Official Guide says " The passage is more concerned with how the system of two snakes are different, rather than why, in order to identify how terrestrial snakes have adapted to gravity's influence.

But passage has below line "That many terrestrial snakes in similar spatial orientations do not experience this kind of circulatory failure suggests that certain adaptations enable them to regulate blood pressure more effectively in those orientations."

It does talk about "why"

Can some expert throw some light on this evolutionary process :!:
PS. I mean expert in RC and not expert in evolutionary process :lol: . Just kidding everyone is welcome to share their views
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2013, 10:02
The primary purpose of the third paragraph is to
(A) introduce a topic that is not discussed earlier in the passage
(B) describe a more efficient method of achieving an effect discussed in the previous paragraph
(C) draw a conclusion based on information elaborated in the previous paragraph
(D) discuss two specific examples of phenomena mentioned at the end of the previous paragraph
(E) introduce evidence that undermines a view reported earlier in the passage

Why is D the correct answer?
To what 2 phenomena's is this option referring?
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2013, 13:09
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ronr34 wrote:
The primary purpose of the third paragraph is to
(A) introduce a topic that is not discussed earlier in the passage
(B) describe a more efficient method of achieving an effect discussed in the previous paragraph
(C) draw a conclusion based on information elaborated in the previous paragraph
(D) discuss two specific examples of phenomena mentioned at the end of the previous paragraph
(E) introduce evidence that undermines a view reported earlier in the passage

Why is D the correct answer?
To what 2 phenomena's is this option referring?


One such adaptation is the closer proximity of the terrestrial snake's heart to its head, which helps to ensure circulation to the brain, regardless of the snake's orientation in space. The heart of sea snakes can be located near the middle of the body, a position that minimizes the work entailed in circulating blood to both extremities. In arboreal snakes, however, which dwell in trees and often assume a vertical posture, the average distance from the heart to the head can be as little as 15 percent of overall body length. Such a location
requires
that blood circulated to the tail of the snake travel a greater distance back to the heart, a problem solved by another adaptation. When climbing, arboreal snakes often pause
momentarily to wiggle their bodies, causing waves of muscle contraction that advance from the lower torso to the head. By compressing the veins and forcing blood forward, these contractions apparently improve the flow of venous blood returning to the heart.


in the chain of the argument we have TWO shifts..............hope this helps
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2014, 01:32
Hi,
can someone please rate the difficulty level of this passage..? i found it really tough to relate information..i attempted first 5 and my score is 3/5 in 10 mins :? ..IMO,may be 700 level..thanks..
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2015, 10:46
Are the questions of 700 level?
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2015, 22:56
9:32 mins
except frst question, all of them correct :)
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2015, 06:16
7/8
Marked the last one wrong.
How much time can we allot to this passage( for reading and solving 8 questions ) ??

I've taken 13 mins for the whole thing. :? :oops: :roll:
Puys, any suggestions to improve RC speed ??
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2015, 08:02
My answers and explanations:

1. The passage provides information in support of which of the following assertions?

(A) The disadvantages of an adaptation to a particular feature of an environment often outweigh the advantages of such an adaptation.
Not okie

(B) An organism's reaction to being placed in an environment to which it is not well adapted can sometimes illustrate the problems that have been solved by the adaptations of organisms indigenous to that environment
okie

(C) The effectiveness of an organism's adaptation to a particular feature of its environment can only be evaluated by examining the effectiveness with which organisms of other species have adapted to a similar feature of a different environment.
Similar feature …. Not okie, other species – not okie

(D) Organisms of the same species that inhabit strikingly different environments will often adapt in remarkably similar ways to the few features of those environments that are common.
similar ways – not okie

(E) Different species of organisms living in the same environment will seldom adapt to features of that environment in the same way.
Different species – not okie

2. According to the passage, one reason that the distribution of blood in the sea snake changes little while the creature remains in the ocean is that

Because the vertical pressure gradients within the blood vessels are counteracted by similar pressure gradients in the surrounding water

(A) the heart of the sea snake tends to be located near the center of its body
Not okie
(B) pressure gradients in the water surrounding the sea snake counter the effects of vertical pressure gradients within its blood vessels
okie
(C) the sea snake assumes a vertical posture less frequently than do the terrestrial and the arboreal snake
not okie
(D) the sea snake often relies on waves of muscle contractions to help move blood from the torso to the head
not okie

(E) the force of pressure gradients in the water surrounding the sea snake exceeds that of vertical pressure gradients within its circulatory system
Not okie

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is true of species of terrestrial snakes that often need to assume a vertical posture?
Explanation:
One such adaptation is the closer proximity of the terrestrial snake's heart to its head, which helps to ensure circulation to the brain, regardless of the snake's orientation in space. The heart of sea snakes can be located near the middle of the body, a position that minimizes the work entailed in circulating blood to both extremities. In arboreal snakes, however, which dwell in trees and often assume a vertical posture, the average distance from the heart to the head can be as little as 15 percent of overall body length


(A) They are more likely to be susceptible to circulatory failure in vertical postures than are sea snakes.
Not okie
(B) Their hearts are less likely to be located at the midpoint of their bodies than is the case with sea snakes.
okie
(C) They cannot counteract the pooling of blood in lower regions of their bodies as effectively as sea snakes can.
Not okie
(D) The blood pressure at their midpoint decreases significantly when they are tilted with their heads up.
Not okie
(E) They are unable to rely on muscle contractions to move venous blood from the lower torso to the head.
Not okie

4. The author describes the behavior of the circulatory system of sea snakes when they are removed from the ocean (see lines 17-20) primarily in order to

(A) illustrate what would occur in the circulatory system of terrestrial snakes without adaptations that enable them to regulate their blood pressure in vertical orientations
okie
(B) explain why arboreal snakes in vertical orientations must rely on muscle contractions to restore blood pressure to the brain

(C) illustrate the effects of circulatory failure on the behavior of arboreal snakes

(D) illustrate the superiority of the circulatory system of the terrestrial snake to that of the sea snake
Not okie
(E) explain how changes in spatial orientation can adversely affect the circulatory system of snakes with hearts located in relatively close proximity to their heads
Not okie

5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is a true statement about sea snakes?
Explanation:
When removed from the water and tilted at various angles with the head up, however, blood pressure at their midpoint drops significantly, and at brain level falls to zero

(A) They frequently rely on waves of muscle contractions from the lower torso to the head to supplement the work of the heart.
Not okie
(B) They can not effectively regulate their blood pressure when placed in sea water and tilted at an angle with the head pointed downward.
Not okie ???
(C) They are more likely to have a heart located in close proximity to their heads than are arboreal snakes.
Not okie
(D) They become acutely vulnerable to the effects of gravitational pressure on their circulatory system when they are placed in a terrestrial environment.
okie
(E) Their cardiovascular system is not as complicated as that of arboreal snakes.
Not okie

6. The author suggests that which of the following is a disadvantage that results from the location of a snake's heart in close proximity to its head?

explanation: Such a locationrequires that blood circulated to the tail of the snake travel a greater distance back to the heart,

(A) A decrease in the efficiency with which the snake regulates the flow of blood to the brain
Not okie
(B) A decrease in the number of orientations in space that a snake can assume without loss of blood flow to the brain
Not okie
(C) A decrease in blood pressure at the snake's mid point when it is tilted at various angles with its head up
Not okie
(D) An increase in the tendency of blood to pool at the snake's head when the snake is tilted at various angles with its head down
Not okie
(E) An increase in the amount of effort required to distribute blood to and from the snake's tail
okie


7. The primary purpose of the third paragraph is to

(A) introduce a topic that is not discussed earlier in the passage
Not okie
(B) describe a more efficient method of achieving an effect discussed in the previous paragraph
okie
(C) draw a conclusion based on information elaborated in the previous paragraph
not okie, not conclusion
(D) discuss two specific examples of phenomena mentioned at the end of the previous paragraph
okie – choose – D is better than B
(E) introduce evidence that undermines a view reported earlier in the passage
not okie

8. In the passage,the author is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?

(A) Explaining adaptations that enable the terrestrial snake to cope with the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system
okie
(B) Comparing the circulatory system of the sea snake with that of the terrestrial snake
Not okie
(C) Explaining why the circulatory system of the terrestrial snake is different from that of the sea snake
Not okie
(D) Pointing out features of the terrestrial snake's cardiovascular system that make it superior to that of the sea snake
Not okie, “explain the adaptation” is better
(E) Explaining how the sea snake is able to neutralize the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system
Not enough information  wrong
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 29 Feb 2016, 10:20
I would rate this as a moderately tough passage...Not too tough, although I managed to answer 5 correctly. Bombed the 4th, 6th and 8th.

Although, I do understand the reasoning behind the correct options for question numbers 8 and 4, could anyone please explain as to why option number E is the best for question number 6?
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In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 29 Feb 2016, 21:51
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gauravmarwaha wrote:
could anyone please explain as to why option number E is the best for question number 6?
Take a look at this part of the passage:

betterscore wrote:
One such adaptation is the closer proximity of the terrestrial snake’s heart to its head, which helps to ensure circulation to the brain, regardless of the snake’s orientation in space.The heart of sea snakes can be located near the middle of the body, a position that minimizes the work entailed in circulating blood to both extremities. In arboreal snakes, however, which dwell in trees and often assume a vertical posture, the average distance from the heart to the head can be as little as 15 percent of overall body length. Such a location requires that blood circulated to the tail of the snake travel a greater distance back to the heart, a problem solved by another adaptation. When climbing, arboreal snakes often pause momentarily to wiggle their bodies, causing waves of muscle contraction that advance from the lower torso to the head. By compressing the veins and forcing blood forward, these contractions apparently improve the flow of venous blood returning to the heart.
If the heart is closer to the head, the brain gets blood even against gravity (vertical posture). But that means that blood going to the tail needs to travel a greater distance. The passage calls this a "problem". So there is a problem/disadvantage resulting from "the location of a snake’s heart in close proximity to its head".

Now, because we already know that a position "near the middle" minimizes the work involved in circulating blood, we can say that more effort is needed to get blood to the tail if the heart is positioned closer to the head.
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2016, 08:01
Thanks a lot for your reply Ajitesh! Kudos for your reply:)
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2016, 02:59
I do not understand the rationale behind the answer for Q8 (primary concern, General question).

In my opinion, both A and B are considered partial. A fails to mention sea snakes (which constitutes the whole 2nd paragraph) while B does not state gravity.
Why does OG prefer A than B, considering both are equally flawed?
Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands   [#permalink] 09 Mar 2016, 02:59
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