In the industrialized nations, the last century has : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# In the industrialized nations, the last century has

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Director
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In the industrialized nations, the last century has [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2005, 02:46
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In the industrialized nations, the last century has witnessed a shortening of the average workday from twelve hours or longer to less than eight hours. Mindful of this enormous increase in leisure time over the past century, many people assume that the same trend has obtained throughout history, and that, therefore, prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survival.
We cannot, of course, directly test this assumption. However, a study of primitive peoples of today suggests a different conclusion. The Mbuti of central Africa, for instance, spend only a few hours each day in hunting, gathering, and tending to other economic necessities. The rest of their time is spent as they choose. The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar to industrialized societies. Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization.

Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?

(A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonindustrialized societies.
(B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization.
(C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure.
(D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.
(E) As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.

Which of the following, if true, would most greatly strengthen the argument made in the passage above?

(A) In recent decades, the economy of the Mbuti has been markedly affected by the encroachment of modern civilization.
(B) The life-style of the Mbuti is similar to that of prehistoric humans.
(C) The Mbuti have no words in their language to express the distinction between work activities and leisure activities.
(D) The workday of a European peasant in medieval times averaged between eleven and fifteen hours.
(E) The members of the Shaklik tribe in central Asia have an average workday of ten to twelve hours.
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Director
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19 Sep 2005, 04:13
The short workday is not peculiar to industrialized societies.

* Prehistoric = little work, much play

Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization.

* Early stage of industrialization = much work, little play
* Later stage of industrialization = little work, much play

Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?

(A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonindustrialized societies.
>> We cannot be sure if people in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than the Mbuti people.

(B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization.
>> Not true. The above article says "The short workday is NOT PECULIAR to industrialized societies."

(C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure.
>> We cannot say industrialization involves TEDIOUS, MONOTONOUS JOBS.

(D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.
>> Yeah, it is likely.

(E) As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.
>> Not relevant.

Therefore, my guess is (D), but I'm not very convinced.

==============================================

Which of the following, if true, would most greatly strengthen the argument made in the passage above?

Clearly, (B).

(B) The life-style of the Mbuti is similar to that of prehistoric humans.
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19 Sep 2005, 06:21
IMO, its C,B

Its C because all other options support the view that an industrialized country has shorter work-days compared to that of the non-industrialized countries.

OA/OE Plz.

Krishna

PS : Just wondering whether such questions would come in the GMAT.
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19 Sep 2005, 13:58
IMO B and B. I think is clear for the second question.

For the first question one can dismiss A (it is stated that Mbuti have more leisure time that we have), E (irrelevant), D (nothing is stated about the future) and C (tedious, monotonous???)
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23 Sep 2005, 15:30
E and A in my opinion.
Whats the OA.
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hey ya......

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25 Sep 2005, 15:41
Director
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29 Sep 2005, 06:02

OA/OE, bitte.
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29 Sep 2005, 06:08
I think D and B too
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29 Sep 2005, 06:30
Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?

(A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonindustrialized societies.
>> No. The passage makes no reference to non-industrialized socieites.

(B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization.
>> Yes. The key phrase being "many people assume that the same trend has obtained throughout history", suggesting that it wasn't always so.

(C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure.
>> No. Irrelevant.

(D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.
>> No. The passage suggests nothing of future trends.

(E) As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.
>> No. Again, irrelevant.

Which of the following, if true, would most greatly strengthen the argument made in the passage above?

(A) In recent decades, the economy of the Mbuti has been markedly affected by the encroachment of modern civilization.
>> No. This doesn't affect the argument.

(B) The life-style of the Mbuti is similar to that of prehistoric humans.
>> Yes, this would strengthen the argument that people worked less before industrialization.

(C) The Mbuti have no words in their language to express the distinction between work activities and leisure activities.
>> No. This doesn't affect the argument.

(D) The workday of a European peasant in medieval times averaged between eleven and fifteen hours.
>> No. This would weaken the argument.

(E) The members of the Shaklik tribe in central Asia have an average workday of ten to twelve hours.
>> No. Would also weaken the argument.[/b]
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29 Sep 2005, 14:03
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30 Sep 2005, 00:20
D and B for me.
30 Sep 2005, 00:20
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