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Can I say that C is inference in the reverse direction??? - when it should emphasize that Australia was antipodes before the island was country.
Regarding C, I forgot to mention one more grammatical note! Always, when the words after the underlined portion are descriptive, whatever those words describe must be the last word in your answer. Thus, only an answer ending with "antipodes" can be correct. If i get this point correct then -
The sentence is describing antipodes, so it has to be the last word in the answer. Am I correct??
Yes, "the opposite pole..." describes the antipodes. You got it:)
7. The players' helmets need to be repainted before they are used in Sunday's game. CORRECT. Helmets is the antecedent of they. You need not worry that they could refer to players', because (1)helmets is closer to they, and (2) players' is a possessive noun, and is therefore not a good antecedent for a pronoun in the subjective case(they)- Recall the Poisons Rule.
Similarly in the question above the first half "In the minds of many people living in England" is in the possessive form. Minds of X the X= people living in England, acts as one long subject.
Hence, it can refer only to Australia. Therefore the construction in (A) is correct.
Coming to (E) Australia was what had been known as the antipodes the "had been known" is improperly used here. You DO NOT need a "had been", which is a past perfect since we are not talking about any event that occurred in the past before another event.
Hope this clears things up (Your "KUDOS" will be much appreciated :D )
Btw, the question is from OG (10th ed) - SC - #43 _________________
You've done a good job working out the intended meaning! Now, let's get comfortable with the grammatical issues in play:
In the minds of many people living in England, before Australia was Australia, it was the antipodes, the opposite pole to civilization, an obscure and unimaginable place that was considered the end of the world. (A) before Australia was Australia, it was the antipodes (B) before there was Australia, it was the antipodes (C) it was the antipodes that was Australia (D) Australia was what was the antipodes (E) Australia was what had been known as the antipodes
A. "before Australia was Australia," means, "before the land mass was a country." "it was the antipodes" means, "Australia was the antipodes."
B. "before there was Australia" means that, at one time, there was no such place. But the place has always existed; it has just been considered something different, namely, the end of the world.
C. There are no grammatical issues here-- only the meaning is incorrect. "It was the antipodes that was Australia" is a structure that creates emphasis. For example, "It polluters, not consumers, that are the problem." "It is price levels, rather than supply and demand, that reflect consumer attitudes." But this sentence did not intend to emphasize that it was the antipodes (as opposed to something else) that was Australia.
D. Again, just he meaning is wrong. "Australia was what was the antipodes" means that Australia was something that the antipodes once was as well. (Sound like gibberish? That's because it is gibberish!)
E. "Australia was what had been known as the antipodes" indicates that Australia is no longer the thing that had previously been thought to be the antipodes. The past simple ('was') indicates that the action is over. But Australia still is the land that once was thought to be the antipodes.
Certainly one of the more challenging questions!
If this helped, kindly give Kudos!
Great explanation, thanks Sarai.
I chose A for a different reason: I just removed the part 'before Australia was Australia' and found no error in the given sentence. Now I understand, just by chance I got it correct because, if we go with my approach, sentence meaning totally changes where the word 'antipodes' gains more emphasis rather than 'Australia'.
Re: In the minds of many people living in England, before [#permalink]
04 Jan 2014, 13:04
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Re: In the minds of many people living in England, before
04 Jan 2014, 13:04