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In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and

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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 15 Mar 2013, 08:12
egmat wrote:
droopy57 wrote:
In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and other health care workers will increase significantly worldwide. Even so, the average compensation received by such professional will not decline but rather is likely to increase. This is due, at least partly, to the fact that the median age of the world’s population will increase steadily in this same period of time.

The argument above depends logically upon which of the following assumptions?

(A) The increase in the number of health care workers will be responsible for the increase in the average life span
(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers
(C) As a group, older people receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people.
(D) Geriatrics, a branch of medicine focusing on the health problems of older people, is the most expensive element of American health care.
(E) Increase in the median age of the population will occur in all regions of the world.


Hi,

To find out the assumption, we first need to find out the premises and the conclusion to locate the gaps.

Premise: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and other health care workers will increase significantly worldwide.
Premise: median age of the world’s population will increase steadily in this same period of time
Conclusion/Prediction: the average compensation received by such professional will not decline but rather is likely to increase

I think some of the confusion could have been in identifying the conclusion. It's not stated directly using keywords like therefore, as a result etc.

Rather, it's written in a counter observation style "Even so,...". This makes it quite tricky to identify it as the conclusion. However, reading the third statement gives us a clue that the second statement is indeed a conclusion. This is because the third statement tries to explain the second one, while the first statement is treated more or less a factual or certain statement.

Now, after the conclusion has been identified, we can either move directly to the options or pre-think what could be an assumption. The strategy advised by e-GMAT is pre-thinking.

So, let's try to pre-think an assumption:

It says that number of workers will increase and the conclusion is that their average compensation will also increase. We know that increase in compensation could either be the result of increased number of work hours or increased payment per hour. So, older people should either provide more work to these workers or provide more payment for the same amount of time. The first part i.e. more work, is what is given in option C. Therefore, this is the correct choice.

For completion, let's look at other choices too:

(A) The increase in the number of health care workers will be responsible for the increase in the average life span - Incorrect. No confusions.
(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers - We are talking about doctors, nurses and other healthcare workers as a group in the passage while this statement treats them differently. This statement will not even fit in the argument. Incorrect.
(D) Geriatrics, a branch of medicine focusing on the health problems of older people, is the most expensive element of American health care. - We are not talking about America specifically. Incorrect.
(E) Increase in the median age of the population will occur in all regions of the world. - What if this doesn't occur and only Japanese age? Can't workers salaries increase in that case? If salaries in rest of the world remain constant while salaries in Japan rise, average salary will increase. Since negation of this statement doesn't invalidate the conclusion, this is not an assumption.

Hope this helps :)

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Chiranjeev,


I agree that all except C are not answers.

But still difficult to understand why C is answer...

C says Older people "receive" more attention from health care workers....!! don't you think it should be "require" instead of " receives"??

Because IMO C option means workers pay more attention towards older people than younger people...!!

Please explain...
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Re: CR- healthcare [#permalink] New post 15 Mar 2013, 09:42
The question states that the salary of medical professions would increase and towards the end also states that this is because the median age of people would increase world wide. This means that more attention is given to the people who are aged than those who are young. Therefore, the more the median age "worldwide", more the health problems, more the attention, more would be the requirement of health care professionals and more would be the salary.

If you now read C, everything falls in place! Hence, C is the correct answer!
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 15 Mar 2013, 10:34
droopy57 wrote:
In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and other health care workers will increase significantly worldwide. Even so, the average compensation received by such professional will not decline but rather is likely to increase. This is due, at least partly, to the fact that the median age of the world’s population will increase steadily in this same period of time.

The argument above depends logically upon which of the following assumptions?

(A) The increase in the number of health care workers will be responsible for the increase in the average life span
(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers
(C) As a group, older people receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people.
(D) Geriatrics, a branch of medicine focusing on the health problems of older people, is the most expensive element of American health care.
(E) Increase in the median age of the population will occur in all regions of the world.


I did not like any of the options. C was the most closer one but it yet assumes that Median age = Old age
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Re: CR- healthcare [#permalink] New post 15 Mar 2013, 11:00
Hello TehJay,

I find this problem very odd. It is not written in a logical manner. For example, it is not necessary that an increase in the number of elderly people would translate into an increase in income in future. The increase could be associated with an increase in the cost of procedures etc. There seems to be a jump in logic here.

However, you got option d perfectly right. The argument talks about the situation around the globe while option d focuses on USA. Hence, d is out of the picture.

Let us analyze b and c.

(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers

You are right in saying that one the compensation of treating the elderly might be more for one group which might increase the average income. However, we do not know for sure whether the compensation for treating elderly will increase only for one particular group or all groups. We do not need to know the relative increase in the compensation for various fields of profession.
However, if you are still unsure of which option is the assumption, you can do the negation test.
Negating option B would imply that the compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will not increase more than that of other health care workers. However, the income of health care workers will increase rapidly when compared to the income of doctors and therapists. Hence, there will be a net increase irrespective of the amount/percentage by which they income grows. Thus, irrespective of the information stated in this option, the net income will increase.

(C) As a group, older people receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people.
If the older people receive more attention from health care workers then they would have to visit the hospitals more and would in return ensure than the income of health care workers increase. This would lead to an overall increase in the income.

Hope this helps! Let me know if I can help you any further.

TehJay wrote:
The assumption seems to be that the doctors who work with older patients will earn an increasing amount of money, thus raising the average earnings per doctor despite there being more doctors. But (B), (C), and (D) all seem to speak to this fact, and I couldn't really determine between them.

(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers

Seems like exactly what I was looking for, and this is the answer I picked.

(C) As a group, older people receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people.

As the median age goes up, the doctors who work primarily with older people will get more business -> make more money -> increase the average. Seems to fit as well (and apparently is the OA)

(D) Geriatrics, a branch of medicine focusing on the health problems of older people, is the most expensive element of American health care.

More older people means there are more people who need to pay for geriatrics, which is the most expensive element -> the doctors who specialize in geriatrics will earn an increasing wage, improving the average. I think the key to this one is that it specifies AMERICAN health care, while the original argument was WORLDWIDE.

But why is (C) better than (B)? They both seem like perfectly legit answers.

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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 13 May 2013, 23:06
droopy57 wrote:
In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and other health care workers will increase significantly worldwide. Even so, the average compensation received by such professional will not decline but rather is likely to increase. This is due, at least partly, to the fact that the median age of the world’s population will increase steadily in this same period of time.

The argument above depends logically upon which of the following assumptions?

(A) The increase in the number of health care workers will be responsible for the increase in the average life span
(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers
(C) As a group, older people receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people.
(D) Geriatrics, a branch of medicine focusing on the health problems of older people, is the most expensive element of American health care.
(E) Increase in the median age of the population will occur in all regions of the world.

my take is as follows:

prephrase answer: there should be either more number of ppl who come to clincis should increase or existing doctorsshould leave jops,
later is not possilbe so look for choice which says first.
only c has such thing
rest of options are not even contenders.

Kudos pls if answer satisfies ur doubts
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 18 May 2013, 02:39
Premise#1: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and other health care workers will increase significantly worldwide
Premise#2: Even so, the average compensation received by such professional will not decline but rather is likely to increase
Conclusion: This is due, at least partly, to the fact that the median age of the world’s population will increase steadily in this same period of time.

Assumption (unstated premise): Older people need more care than the younger one (C)
Assumption (defending strategy): Negating any other cause of increasing compensation in time of increasing number of health professionals, e.g. world economic growth (not applicable in this case)
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 17 Sep 2013, 06:51
I d go with C but there is an error with the assumption itself. The question states that the median age is increasing. There also could be a case where the population is very young and median age is 25, it might become 30 over a few years. So how can C be a concrete answer?
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 17 Sep 2013, 07:06
What's the conclusion? The cause for increase in salaries of hospital staff is partly due to increasing age of patients?

The Question stem contains words such as "at least partly" ? Hence, It seems the correct answer should be something that doesn't contain most absolute answers such as "most, best, least, etc", but rather a comparison.

Hence

(A) The increase in the number of health care workers will be responsible for the increase in the average life span(Doesn't help; )
(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers ( Confused between B and C)
(C) As a group, older people receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people. (Confused between B and C)
(D) Geriatrics, a branch of medicine focusing on the health problems of older people, is the most expensive element of American health care. (Most expensive seems absolute)
(E) Increase in the median age of the population will occur in all regions of the world. (This seems absolute; We can still have the median of the world to increase with atleast one country having a decrease in it's median )


After reaching B & C; I applied the Assumption Negation Rule; i.e If Assumption is false, then Conclusion is definitely False.

i.e if younger people receiving more attention than old people, then definitely, staff for younger patients will reduce, eventually reducing salaries as they are no longer needed in huge numbers.

Here C applies the best!
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 17 Sep 2013, 08:10
shreejyot wrote:
What's the conclusion? The cause for increase in salaries of hospital staff is partly due to increasing age of patients?

The Question stem contains words such as "at least partly" ? Hence, It seems the correct answer should be something that doesn't contain most absolute answers such as "most, best, least, etc", but rather a comparison.

Hence

(A) The increase in the number of health care workers will be responsible for the increase in the average life span(Doesn't help; )
(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers ( Confused between B and C)
(C) As a group, older people receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people. (Confused between B and C)
(D) Geriatrics, a branch of medicine focusing on the health problems of older people, is the most expensive element of American health care. (Most expensive seems absolute)
(E) Increase in the median age of the population will occur in all regions of the world. (This seems absolute; We can still have the median of the world to increase with atleast one country having a decrease in it's median )


After reaching B & C; I applied the Assumption Negation Rule; i.e If Assumption is false, then Conclusion is definitely False.

i.e if younger people receiving more attention than old people, then definitely, staff for younger patients will reduce, eventually reducing salaries as they are no longer needed in huge numbers.

Here C applies the best!


Be careful in your negation. Usually, the best thing to do is negate the verb, though sometimes it can be trickier. Here, it should be:

"As a group, older people do not receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people."

That they do not receive more doesn't mean that they receive less - maybe they receive an equal amount. This doesn't change your analysis too much, but it can matter for harder questions so I thought I would point it out.
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 17 Sep 2013, 11:39
The question states that "due to the fact that the median age of the world’s population will increase steadily", so it is a fact, and not an assumption, that the increase will happen across the world. --> E is out

The way i look at it is as follows:

Theoretically, if supply increases, then prices have to come down UNLESS demand increases as well.

That said, the question STATES that "supply" will increase (i.e. number of doctors). So in order for the "price" (i.e. compensation for doctors) to increase, "demand" for doctors has to increase as well. Now this is a sub-conclusion that is used to support the final conclusion.

The question attributes the increase in the "demand" for doctors partially to the increase in the median age. Since the question doesn't mention any other reasons we cant assume anything except that older people need medical care more than others (i.e. younger people). --> C correctly mentions that.

going back to the other answer choices:

A) This is a reversed answer. the question states that the the increase in age is causing "something" and not that "something" is causing the increase in age.
B) The question doesn't mention anything about which doctors will witness the increase.
D) Out of scope: brings irrelevant info.

Pre-phrasing is very helpful in this question. It removes all the distractions (i.e. A and E)

For people not familiar with pre-phrasing: it is basically trying to come up with an answer before looking at the answer choices (it might take time in the beginning, but will get easier with practice).

Hope it helps,
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 19 Sep 2013, 11:53
Hey! I have chose B but the OA is C apparently!

Can we say that because B is wronf because it states that only "doctors and physical therapists" will have their income average increase rather than the rest of the medical profession "doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers" ?
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 19 Sep 2013, 12:15
Paris75 wrote:
Hey! I have chose B but the OA is C apparently!

Can we say that because B is wronf because it states that only "doctors and physical therapists" will have their income average increase rather than the rest of the medical profession "doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers" ?


No because B brings in New info. The question states that the increase is for all "such" prof. So compensation for other types of prof. Is irrelevant.

Hope it's clear now.
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 24 Sep 2013, 03:16
The aging population will increase the supply of adults that will need medical care; thus, creating an increase demand for medical professionals…the laws of supply and demand at work…Answer is C.
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 05 Oct 2013, 10:58
This is how i analyzed the passage after the fact. I fell for E as well.

In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and other health care workers will increase significantly worldwide.
Premise: # of Doc, Nur, HCW will increase WW.


Even so, the average compensation received by such professional will not decline but rather is likely to increase.
Premise: The ave. pay will also increase. [Seems to be in contradiction between the laws of supply and demand]

This is due, at least partly, to the fact that the median age of the world’s population will increase steadily in this same period of time.
Conclusion: Pay and # of HCW will both go up b/c world’s pop will go up. --- Assumption – Despite the laws of supply of demand, where more supply of something (HCW) will drive prices down (compensation), prices (comp) will go up. Seems like a paradox – this paradox is explained through the fact that the world population will go up. – Why does the population have an effect on the supply and demand of medical services? Is it because older people receive more care than younger workers? This question is answered by correct answer

I too used POE but I think if I took another 20-30 seconds to analyze the passage the answer will just come to you.
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 06 Oct 2013, 06:17
C explains why the number of health workers will increase but does little or nothing to show why the average salaries will also increase. How about public institutions (majority) where salaries are capped. Moreover, a lot of elderly don't earn enough to pay huge sums for healthcare - hence salaries in this field can't be neccessarly expected to go up
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 06 Oct 2013, 10:41
gwu wrote:
C explains why the number of health workers will increase but does little or nothing to show why the average salaries will also increase. How about public institutions (majority) where salaries are capped. Moreover, a lot of elderly don't earn enough to pay huge sums for healthcare - hence salaries in this field can't be neccessarly expected to go up


Do not bring extraneous information into CR questions, Check e-gmat's explanation. It is pretty clear.
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 19 Oct 2013, 10:08
droopy57 wrote:
In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and other health care workers will increase significantly worldwide. Even so, the average compensation received by such professional will not decline but rather is likely to increase. This is due, at least partly, to the fact that the median age of the world’s population will increase steadily in this same period of time.

The argument above depends logically upon which of the following assumptions?

(A) The increase in the number of health care workers will be responsible for the increase in the average life span
(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers
(C) As a group, older people receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people.
(D) Geriatrics, a branch of medicine focusing on the health problems of older people, is the most expensive element of American health care.
(E) Increase in the median age of the population will occur in all regions of the world.


Assumption Question: what not to pick, assumptions already stated in the argument.
E is out.
A,B,D - not relevant
C - if older people need more attention we need more workers and will be paid higher salaries. this actually link both the premises to support the conclusion.
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Re: CR- healthcare [#permalink] New post 19 May 2014, 05:01
TehJay wrote:
The assumption seems to be that the doctors who work with older patients will earn an increasing amount of money, thus raising the average earnings per doctor despite there being more doctors. But (B), (C), and (D) all seem to speak to this fact, and I couldn't really determine between them.

(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers

Seems like exactly what I was looking for, and this is the answer I picked.

(C) As a group, older people receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people.

As the median age goes up, the doctors who work primarily with older people will get more business -> make more money -> increase the average. Seems to fit as well (and apparently is the OA)

(D) Geriatrics, a branch of medicine focusing on the health problems of older people, is the most expensive element of American health care.

More older people means there are more people who need to pay for geriatrics, which is the most expensive element -> the doctors who specialize in geriatrics will earn an increasing wage, improving the average. I think the key to this one is that it specifies AMERICAN health care, while the original argument was WORLDWIDE.

But why is (C) better than (B)? They both seem like perfectly legit answers.


Premise says:the average compensation received by such professional(which includes all the health care workers) is likely to increase.
Problem with B is that it only mentions compensation of doctors and physical therapists whereas the C says
the attention from "health workers(which includes doctors,nursers and other health care workers)."
So C is the answer
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Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and [#permalink] New post 19 May 2014, 06:45
it was a good question.

P1:In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and other health care workers will increase significantly worldwide.
Con::Even so, the average compensation received by such professional will not decline but rather is likely to increase.
P2:This is due, at least partly, to the fact that the median age of the world’s population will increase steadily in this same period of time.

"cause: the median age of the world’s population will increase steadily in this same period of time......... effect: the average compensation received by such professional will not decline but rather is likely to increase."

there is a gap between premises and the conclusion. the link between the increase of the medical staff's compensation and the increase of median age of the world's population is missing. so, the the correct assumption answer should somehow connect the increase in the medical staffs' compensation to the increase in the median age of the world’s population in the same period of time.

The argument above depends logically upon which of the following assumptions?

(A) The increase in the number of health care workers will be responsible for the increase in the average life span
(B) The compensation of doctors and physical therapists who treat the elderly will increase more than that of other health care workers
(C) As a group, older people receive more attention from health care workers than do younger people. this option shows that the older people are the ones who receives more attention not the younger people and why with increase in the median age worldwide, the medical staffs get more compensation than before. it somehow eliminates the alternative cause.
(D) Geriatrics, a branch of medicine focusing on the health problems of older people, is the most expensive element of American health care.
(E) Increase in the median age of the population will occur in all regions of the world.[/quote]
Re: In the next four years, the number of doctors, nurses, and   [#permalink] 19 May 2014, 06:45
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The nurse told me that the doctor's office closes at 5:00 gmatcrook 5 21 Jun 2008, 21:55
Six doctors, six nurses and six anesthesiologists are at a GMATT73 5 30 Sep 2005, 18:45
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