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In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the

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In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 05:31
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In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the United States has been cut in half. The decline is due primarily to the increasing use of pesticides in the United States, as well as to the introduction of two types of mites that weaken and kill the bees. Honeybees are the primary pollinators for a variety of important fruit crops, including oranges, apples, grapes, peaches, cranberries and watermelons. Therefore, if the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers.

In evaluating the conclusion, which of the following questions would be LEAST useful to answer?

A Are there other insect pollinators that could pollinate these fruit crops instead of the honeybee?
B Are honeybee populations declining in other important fruit-producing regions, like Chile and New Zealand?
C Is it feasible for humans to hand-pollinate the fruits that have been pollinated by bees?
D Will reducing the use of pesticides in the United States reverse the decline in honeybee populations?
E Is it possible to genetically engineer fruit-producing plants so that they no longer require pollination?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by nelz007 on 14 Nov 2012, 08:19, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 19:28
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nelz007 wrote:
In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the United States has been cut in half. The decline is due primarily to the increasing use of pesticides in the United States, as well as to the introduction of two types of mites that weaken and kill the bees. Honeybees are the primary pollinators for a variety of important fruit crops, including oranges, apples, grapes, peaches, cranberries and watermelons. Therefore, if the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers.

In evaluating the conclusion, which of the following questions would be LEAST useful to answer?

A Are there other insect pollinators that could pollinate these fruit crops instead of the honeybee?
B Are honeybee populations declining in other important fruit-producing regions, like Chile and New Zealand?
C Is it feasible for humans to hand-pollinate the fruits that have been pollinated by bees?
D Will reducing the use of pesticides in the United States reverse the decline in honeybee populations?
E Is it possible to genetically engineer fruit-producing plants so that they no longer require pollination?


Responding to 3 pms on this question!

I couldn't recall the honeybee question offhand but was convinced that it must be tricky if people are this unsettled because of it. But mind you, in my opinion, the question is straightforward. All you need to do is focus on what the question is asking you. Do not let emotions interfere!

In all our strengthen/weaken questions we tell you to look at the conclusion. Try to strengthen/weaken that. Here the question clearly asks you to figure out what will not help in evaluating the CONCLUSION.

What is the conclusion?

"If the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers."

The conclusion is that if the honey bee population continues to decline, then consumers will not get fruit. What you have to evaluate is this "If the honeybee population continues to decline, will the consumers get fruit?". Basically, we are wondering whether there are alternative ways of pollination or getting fruit.

A Are there other insect pollinators that could pollinate these fruit crops instead of the honeybee?
Alternative method of pollination

B Are honeybee populations declining in other important fruit-producing regions, like Chile and New Zealand?
Alternative method of obtaining fruit

C Is it feasible for humans to hand-pollinate the fruits that have been pollinated by bees?
Alternative method of pollination

D Will reducing the use of pesticides in the United States reverse the decline in honeybee populations?
Doesn't help in evaluating the conclusion. The conclusion clearly says that if the decline continues, fruits will not be available. We don't have to question whether there are ways to reverse the decline. The point is - if the decline happens, can we do something.

E Is it possible to genetically engineer fruit-producing plants so that they no longer require pollination?
Alternative method of obtaining fruit

Answer (D)
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 15 Nov 2012, 00:28
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Vips0000 wrote:
How does A give you an alternative for polliation? if bee population is declining due to pesticide, can we turn a blind eye to the fact that pesticides would eliminate insects too? And assume that we got one way of pollination?


We do not know whether the insects get affected. It's an 'evaluate' question. You first evaluate whether someone else can pollinate. Once you find someone, then you will evaluate the status of those insects and what affects them etc. You are jumping the gun by saying that the same pesticides will affect every species of insects and hence no other possible pollinator can survive.

Vips0000 wrote:
Also the statement:
D Will reducing the use of pesticides in the United States reverse the decline in honeybee populations?
Doesn't help in evaluating the conclusion. The conclusion clearly says that if the decline continues, fruits will not be available. We don't have to question whether there are ways to reverse the decline. The point is - if the decline happens, can we do something.


"The conclusion clearly says that if the decline continues, fruits will not be available". yes it does. And that is what we have to evaluate.

We dont have to question if there are ways to reverse the decline. But 'consider'- if there is a method that can 'reverse' (note:reverse, Not STOP) the decline, would it impact the conclusion?


Here you haven't understood the conclusion. Say, I give you my opinion "If people keep fighting, the world will end." You need to evaluate my opinion. What will you evaluate? Will you evaluate whether people will keep fighting or will you evaluate what happens when people keep fighting. In my opinion, if people keep fighting, the world will end. You need to find out what happens 'if people keep fighting'. My opinion is based on a condition. If this happens, that will happen. When you evaluate my opinion, you are going to evaluate whether 'that will happen or not if this happens'. You don't have to question whether people will keep fighting or not.
Similarly, the conclusion states 'if honeybee population continues to decline...'
Don't worry about whether actually honeybee population will decline, stay same or increase. Find out what happens if it continues to decline.
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 07:54
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nelz007 wrote:
In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the United States has been cut in half. The decline is due primarily to the increasing use of pesticides in the United States, as well as to the introduction of two types of mites that weaken and kill the bees. Honeybees are the primary pollinators for a variety of important fruit crops, including oranges, apples, grapes, peaches, cranberries and watermelons. Therefore, if the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers.

In evaluating the conclusion, which of the following questions would be LEAST useful to answer?

A Are there other insect pollinators that could pollinate these fruit crops instead of the honeybee?
B Are honeybee populations declining in other important fruit-producing regions, like Chile and New Zealand?
C Is it feasible for humans to hand-pollinate the fruits that have been pollinated by bees?
D Will reducing the use of pesticides in the United States reverse the decline in honeybee populations?
E Is it possible to genetically engineer fruit-producing plants so that they no longer require pollination?


Conclusion is: if the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers.
Lets see each choice one by one.

A Are there other insect pollinators that could pollinate these fruit crops instead of the honeybee?
Even if the ans to this question is yes, chances are pesticides would eliminate those insects as well. note, we are evaluating this conclusion in the light of decline in bee population due to pesticides.
Therefore yes or no in this question does not matter in evaluating the argument.


B Are honeybee populations declining in other important fruit-producing regions, like Chile and New Zealand?
conclusion is that most fruits will no longer be available to customer. If the ans to this question is no that means there will be pollination and there will be fruits. if ans to this question is yes then we know that conclusion holds good. So this question helps.

C Is it feasible for humans to hand-pollinate the fruits that have been pollinated by bees?
Yes/no to this question provides alternate method of pollination. if yes ->pollination -> fruits. if no -> no pollination -> no fruit. So this question helps.

D Will reducing the use of pesticides in the United States reverse the decline in honeybee populations?
yes would mean if population continues to decline we can reverse the trend.-> continue pollination->fruits!
no would mean we can not reverse the trend -> no pollination->no fruits.


E Is it possible to genetically engineer fruit-producing plants so that they no longer require pollination?[/
in this choice we are just eliminating middle man pollination of our other answer choices.. yes->fruits, no->no fruits.

Hence ans A it is.
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:13
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Vips0000 wrote:
nelz007 wrote:
This was a very confusing question. The official answer is D.

How could it be D? :shock:
what is the explanation given?



here's the explanation:

This is a type of weaken question that asks the test-taker to provide the question that would, when answered, either strengthen or weaken the conclusion. In this exception question, the correct answer will be the question that is not useful in evaluating the conclusion. Choice D is the correct answer because it is the one that is not directly focused on the conclusion, which is the prediction that most fruits will be unavailable in the absence of the honeybees. Choice D poses a very important question about a possible way to reverse the decline in the honeybee population, but the answer to this question would neither strengthen nor weaken the conclusion. Choices A and C ask about potential alternative ways to pollinate the fruit, while Choice E presents the possibility that pollination could be bypassed through genetic engineering. Choice B asks about other fruit-producing regions that might be used as alternative sources of fruit for consumers.
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:17
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nelz007 wrote:
In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the United States has been cut in half. The decline is due primarily to the increasing use of pesticides in the United States, as well as to the introduction of two types of mites that weaken and kill the bees. Honeybees are the primary pollinators for a variety of important fruit crops, including oranges, apples, grapes, peaches, cranberries and watermelons. Therefore, if the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers.

In evaluating the conclusion, which of the following questions would be LEAST useful to answer?

A Are there other insect pollinators that could pollinate these fruit crops instead of the honeybee?
B Are honeybee populations declining in other important fruit-producing regions, like Chile and New Zealand?
C Is it feasible for humans to hand-pollinate the fruits that have been pollinated by bees?
D Will reducing the use of pesticides in the United States reverse the decline in honeybee populations?
E Is it possible to genetically engineer fruit-producing plants so that they no longer require pollination?


Not convinced with the OA given.
I feel the answer must be B.
A Are there other insect pollinators that could pollinate these fruit crops instead of the honeybee? YES Then fruits can be easily pollinated despite the decline in the number of honeybees. NO The decline will continue and in futute most of the fruits will be unavailable.
B Are honeybee populations declining in other important fruit-producing regions, like Chile and New Zealand? We are concerned with the fruits in America. Who cares about Chile and New Zealand.
C Is it feasible for humans to hand-pollinate the fruits that have been pollinated by bees? YES If humans can pollinate the fruits, then fruits can be pollinated and in such a case conclusion weakens. NO If humans also are unable to pollinate, then surely the fruits will decline. Strengthens
D Will reducing the use of pesticides in the United States reverse the decline in honeybee populations? YES Then decline can be eliminated by reducing the use of pesticides. Weakens the argument NO So reduction of pesticide usage is also not going to help the fruits anyways. Strengthens the argument.
E Is it possible to genetically engineer fruit-producing plants so that they no longer require pollination? YES If we can genetically engineer the fruit producing plants, then one may never feel short of fruits in America. Weakens the argument. NO Strengthens the argument.
Are you sure about the OA?
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 12:37
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For D, even if we account for the pesticide we would probably need to account for the mites as well to be definitive.

But I think it comes down to the condition of the argument, that we should accept the decline as given.
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 09 Jun 2014, 18:10
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gauravkaushik8591 wrote: and i just couldn't understand how would pollinating a fruit that has been pollinated by bees help? as in, isn't it already pollinated?


you are not parsing the option C correctly

C is trying to look out for a possibility where in the plants that are presently being pollinated by honeybees CAN be pollinated by humans ?
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:09
This was a very confusing question. The official answer is D.
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:11
nelz007 wrote:
This was a very confusing question. The official answer is D.

How could it be D? :shock:
what is the explanation given?
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:19
I just pasted the official explanation that was provided before your post..
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:20
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Gotcha B.
But I just evaluated D and I feel, that too, successfully.
Vips can you please help
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:28
nelz007 wrote:
Vips0000 wrote:
nelz007 wrote:
This was a very confusing question. The official answer is D.

How could it be D? :shock:
what is the explanation given?



here's the explanation:

This is a type of weaken question that asks the test-taker to provide the question that would, when answered, either strengthen or weaken the conclusion. In this exception question, the correct answer will be the question that is not useful in evaluating the conclusion. Choice D is the correct answer because it is the one that is not directly focused on the conclusion, which is the prediction that most fruits will be unavailable in the absence of the honeybees. Choice D poses a very important question about a possible way to reverse the decline in the honeybee population, but the answer to this question would neither strengthen nor weaken the conclusion. Choices A and C ask about potential alternative ways to pollinate the fruit, while Choice E presents the possibility that pollination could be bypassed through genetic engineering. Choice B asks about other fruit-producing regions that might be used as alternative sources of fruit for consumers.


I doubt if the OE is correct.

True, option A looks for potential alternatives for pollination. But it looks for "insect pollination". But even if we find insect X, Y or Z - we still need to evaluate and find out if those insects would not be affected because of pesticides. This definitely can not help in evaluating the argument.
As far as D is concerned - it is not talking about stopping the trend - but it talks about reversal of trend. What it means is if we reduce pesticide bee population will increase -> which shows pollination would happen again -> consumer can get fruits. So it weakens argument when answered in affirmative.

The OE is definitely not correct.
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:39
Vips0000 wrote:

True, option A looks for potential alternatives for pollination. But it looks for "insect pollination". But even if we find insect X, Y or Z - we still need to evaluate and find out if those insects would not be affected because of pesticides. This definitely can not help in evaluating the argument.
As far as D is concerned - it is not talking about stopping the trend - but it talks about reversal of trend. What it means is if we reduce pesticide bee population will increase -> which shows pollination would happen again -> consumer can get fruits. So it weakens argument when answered in affirmative.

The OE is definitely not correct.


I guess D is correct answer because the conclusion states "Therefore, if the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers."
That is -> the conclusion is contingent on the basis only when "honey bee population continues this drastic decline". Per D, if we can reverse or not reverse the trend is irrelevant to issue of getting fruits (given the bees continue to decline)
In other words, we have evaluate all the answer choice considering what will happen if the trend continues.

Makes sense?

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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:48
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Jp27 wrote:
Vips0000 wrote:

True, option A looks for potential alternatives for pollination. But it looks for "insect pollination". But even if we find insect X, Y or Z - we still need to evaluate and find out if those insects would not be affected because of pesticides. This definitely can not help in evaluating the argument.
As far as D is concerned - it is not talking about stopping the trend - but it talks about reversal of trend. What it means is if we reduce pesticide bee population will increase -> which shows pollination would happen again -> consumer can get fruits. So it weakens argument when answered in affirmative.

The OE is definitely not correct.


I guess D is correct answer because the conclusion states "Therefore, if the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers."
That is -> the conclusion is contingent on the basis only when "honey bee population continues this drastic decline". Per D, if we can reverse or not reverse the trend is irrelevant to issue of getting fruits (given the bees continue to decline)
In other words, we have evaluate all the answer choice considering what will happen if the trend continues.

Makes sense?

Cheers

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But won't reversing the trend halt the continuation of the decline in the number of fruits available to consumers in America, given the fact that honeybees are the pollinators.
Am I missing something?
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:52
Jp27 wrote:
Vips0000 wrote:

True, option A looks for potential alternatives for pollination. But it looks for "insect pollination". But even if we find insect X, Y or Z - we still need to evaluate and find out if those insects would not be affected because of pesticides. This definitely can not help in evaluating the argument.
As far as D is concerned - it is not talking about stopping the trend - but it talks about reversal of trend. What it means is if we reduce pesticide bee population will increase -> which shows pollination would happen again -> consumer can get fruits. So it weakens argument when answered in affirmative.

The OE is definitely not correct.


I guess D is correct answer because the conclusion states "Therefore, if the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers."
That is -> the conclusion is contingent on the basis only when "honey bee population continues this drastic decline". Per D, if we can reverse or not reverse the trend is irrelevant to issue of getting fruits (given the bees continue to decline)
In other words, we have evaluate all the answer choice considering what will happen if the trend continues.

Makes sense?

Cheers

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Not really!

Yes conclusion is -
"if bee population continues to decline-> most fruits will no longer be available to consumers"

most basic logical meaning of this?
if population doesnt decline (or increase -reversing the trend!) -> fruits may be available to consumers.
Which is option D. So it matters!

I hope your explanation is not driven from answer?
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 08:59
Marcab wrote:
Jp27 wrote:
Vips0000 wrote:

True, option A looks for potential alternatives for pollination. But it looks for "insect pollination". But even if we find insect X, Y or Z - we still need to evaluate and find out if those insects would not be affected because of pesticides. This definitely can not help in evaluating the argument.
As far as D is concerned - it is not talking about stopping the trend - but it talks about reversal of trend. What it means is if we reduce pesticide bee population will increase -> which shows pollination would happen again -> consumer can get fruits. So it weakens argument when answered in affirmative.

The OE is definitely not correct.


I guess D is correct answer because the conclusion states "Therefore, if the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers."
That is -> the conclusion is contingent on the basis only when "honey bee population continues this drastic decline". Per D, if we can reverse or not reverse the trend is irrelevant to issue of getting fruits (given the bees continue to decline)
In other words, we have evaluate all the answer choice considering what will happen if the trend continues.

Makes sense?

Cheers

cheers


But won't reversing the trend halt the continuation of the decline in the number of fruits available to consumers in America, given the fact that honeybees are the pollinators.
Am I missing something?


But you are answering the wrong question!
Question here is Will american get fruits, despite the decline of bees?
See how the other answer choices work.

A Are there other insect pollinators that could pollinate these fruit crops instead of the honeybee?
if Other insect can pollinate then we will get fruits, let the bees die

B Are honeybee populations declining in other important fruit-producing regions, like Chile and New Zealand?
we will get fruits from other counties, who cares abt the bees!

C Is it feasible for humans to hand-pollinate the fruits that have been pollinated by bees?
humans can hand-pollinate so we can get fruits, we dont need bees anymore to pollinate

E Is it possible to genetically engineer fruit-producing plants so that they no longer require pollination?
fruit no longer need pollination, no use of bees.

See the trend sir?
When I say "If i go the party, I will get drunk"
In evaluating "will I get drunk?, There is no point question whether I will go to the party!


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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 09:07
Vips0000 wrote:
Jp27 wrote:
Vips0000 wrote:

True, option A looks for potential alternatives for pollination. But it looks for "insect pollination". But even if we find insect X, Y or Z - we still need to evaluate and find out if those insects would not be affected because of pesticides. This definitely can not help in evaluating the argument.
As far as D is concerned - it is not talking about stopping the trend - but it talks about reversal of trend. What it means is if we reduce pesticide bee population will increase -> which shows pollination would happen again -> consumer can get fruits. So it weakens argument when answered in affirmative.

The OE is definitely not correct.


I guess D is correct answer because the conclusion states "Therefore, if the honey bee population continues this drastic decline, then most fruits will no longer be available to consumers."
That is -> the conclusion is contingent on the basis only when "honey bee population continues this drastic decline". Per D, if we can reverse or not reverse the trend is irrelevant to issue of getting fruits (given the bees continue to decline)
In other words, we have evaluate all the answer choice considering what will happen if the trend continues.

Makes sense?

Cheers

cheers


Not really!

Yes conclusion is -
"if bee population continues to decline-> most fruits will no longer be available to consumers"

most basic logical meaning of this?
if population doesnt decline (or increase -reversing the trend!) -> fruits may be available to consumers.
Which is option D. So it matters!

I hope your explanation is not driven from answer?


This (bolded) is wrong logic
If I'm in Pasir Ris New Town then I'm in Singapore.
From this you conclude ->
If Im NOT in Pasir Ris New Town then I'm NOT in Singapore -

Clearly wrong. I could be at some other place in Singapore such as Ang Mo Kio
Correct Inference is
If im NOT in Singapore then I'm Definitely NOT in Pasir Ris New Town -> this is the correct inference.

Now?
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 09:25
Jp27 wrote:

This (bolded) is wrong logic
If I'm in Pasir Ris New Town then I'm in Singapore.
From this you conclude ->
If Im NOT in Pasir Ris New Town then I'm NOT in Singapore -

Clearly wrong. I could be at some other place in Singapore such as Ang Mo Kio
Correct Inference is
If im NOT in Singapore then I'm Definitely NOT in Pasir Ris New Town -> this is the correct inference.

Now?


Sorry dude.. but these examples are like comparing apples to oranges.

if bee population continues to decline-> most fruits will no longer be available to consumers
This is cause and its effect

While this one is not ->
If I'm in Pasir Ris New Town then I'm in Singapore.
It is just logical deduction.
It will be negated as :
If i'm not in singapore then I'm not in pasir ris new town.

I'll give u one more example -

Cause and effect:
If it rains, I'll get wet
If it doesnt rain - I'll not get wet!

Logical deduction-
Mumbai is in india.
I'm in Mumbai -> then I'm in india
In this case negation can not happen as u did, It can be done as ->
If i'm not in india -> then i'm not in mumbai.
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Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 09:36
Vips0000 wrote:
Jp27 wrote:

This (bolded) is wrong logic
If I'm in Pasir Ris New Town then I'm in Singapore.
From this you conclude ->
If Im NOT in Pasir Ris New Town then I'm NOT in Singapore -

Clearly wrong. I could be at some other place in Singapore such as Ang Mo Kio
Correct Inference is
If im NOT in Singapore then I'm Definitely NOT in Pasir Ris New Town -> this is the correct inference.

Now?


Sorry dude.. but these examples are like comparing apples to oranges.

if bee population continues to decline-> most fruits will no longer be available to consumers
This is cause and its effect

While this one is not ->
If I'm in Pasir Ris New Town then I'm in Singapore.
It is just logical deduction.
It will be negated as :
If i'm not in singapore then I'm not in pasir ris new town.

I'll give u one more example -

Cause and effect:
If it rains, I'll get wet
If it doesnt rain - I'll not get wet!

Logical deduction-
Mumbai is in india.
I'm in Mumbai -> then I'm in india
In this case negation can not happen as u did, It can be done as ->
If i'm not in india -> then i'm not in mumbai.


No dude. When you start a statement as you have done here, with IF...

Vips0000 wrote:
Cause and effect:
If it rains, I'll get wet
If it doesnt rain - I'll not get wet!




Then IT'S ALWAYS CONDITIONAL NOT CAUSALITY. you can still wet when someone pours water on you!


If I'm in Pasir Ris New Town then I'm in Singapore.
If im NOT in Singapore then I'm Definitely NOT in Pasir Ris New Town

Mumbai is in india.
If i'm not in india -> then i'm not in mumbai.


I don't see any difference between two. but you claim otherwise. :oops:

Cheers
Re: In the past 50 years, the population of honeybees in the   [#permalink] 14 Nov 2012, 09:36
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