Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

It appears that you are browsing the GMAT Club forum unregistered!

Signing up is free, quick, and confidential.
Join other 500,000 members and get the full benefits of GMAT Club

Registration gives you:

Tests

Take 11 tests and quizzes from GMAT Club and leading GMAT prep companies such as Manhattan GMAT,
Knewton, and others. All are free for GMAT Club members.

Applicant Stats

View detailed applicant stats such as GPA, GMAT score, work experience, location, application
status, and more

Books/Downloads

Download thousands of study notes,
question collections, GMAT Club’s
Grammar and Math books.
All are free!

Thank you for using the timer!
We noticed you are actually not timing your practice. Click the START button first next time you use the timer.
There are many benefits to timing your practice, including:

Please provide your reasons and explanations. Thank you.

1) The number of distinct factors of N is even.

Suppose N = 4. It has 3 distinct factors: 1, 2 and 4. Suppose N = 9. It has 3 distinct factors: 1, 3 and 9. Suppose N = 16. It has 5 distinct factors: 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16. Suppose N = 64. It has 7 distinct factors: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64. But that not the case. In fact, the case is opposite. So it is sufficient because N is not a square.

(2) The sum of all distinct factors of N is even.

If you follow the above pattern, you see 1 is always there. The sum of all distinct factors except 1 of N is even. If you add 1 on the even sum, that odd. So N is not a square. But that not the case. In fact, the case is opposite. So it is sufficient because N is again not a square.

So D.

PS: A perfect square always have odd number of factors, for e.g a integer \(n\) and its square \(n^2\)

Now, \(n\) will have always have even number of factors, (take any number and you will realise that factors come in pairs), now \(n^2\) will have all factors which \(n\) has + one more which is \(n^2\)

Please provide your reasons and explanations. Thank you.

Probably the best way of solving would be making the chart of perfect squares and its factors to check both statements, but below is the algebraic approach if needed.

Couple of things: 1. Note that if \(n\) is a perfect square powers of its prime factors must be even, for instance: \(36=2^2*3^2\), powers of prime factors of 2 and 3 are even.

2. There is a formula for Finding the Number of Factors of an Integer:

First make prime factorization of an integer \(n=a^p*b^q*c^r\), where \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\) are prime factors of \(n\) and \(p\), \(q\), and \(r\) are their powers.

The number of factors of \(n\) will be expressed by the formula \((p+1)(q+1)(r+1)\). NOTE: this will include 1 and n itself.

Example: Finding the number of all factors of 450: \(450=2^1*3^2*5^2\)

Total number of factors of 450 including 1 and 450 itself is \((1+1)*(2+1)*(2+1)=2*3*3=18\) factors.

3. A perfect square ALWAYS has an ODD number of Odd-factors, and EVEN number of Even-factors. For instance odd factors of 36 are 1, 3 and 9 (3 odd factor) and even factors are 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 36 (6 even factors).

Back to the original question:

Is the positive integer N a perfect square?

(1) The number of distinct factors of N is even --> let's say \(n=a^p*b^q*c^r\), given that the number of factors of \(n\) is even --> \((p+1)(q+1)(r+1)=even\). But as we concluded if n is a perfect square then powers of its primes \(p\), \(q\), and \(r\) must be even, and in this case number of factors would be \((p+1)(q+1)(r+1)=(even+1)(even+1)(even+1)=odd*odd*odd=odd\neq{even}\). Hence \(n\) can not be a perfect square. Sufficient.

(2) The sum of all distinct factors of N is even --> if n is a perfect square then (according to 3) sum of odd factors would be odd and sum of even factors would be even, so sum of all factors of perfect square would be \(odd+even=odd\neq{even}\). Hence \(n\) can not be a perfect square. Sufficient.

Answer: D.

There are some tips about the perfect square: • The number of distinct factors of a perfect square is ALWAYS ODD. • The sum of distinct factors of a perfect square is ALWAYS ODD. • A perfect square ALWAYS has an ODD number of Odd-factors, and EVEN number of Even-factors. • Perfect square always has even number of powers of prime factors.

Re: Is the positive integer N a perfect square? [#permalink]

Show Tags

26 Jul 2012, 12:49

Agree with that the solutions presented above could probably be the way to do it in the test but have a few considerations regarding the problem.

1. It says N is positive. Why would we not consider 1 as a test value too? It is positive and is a perfect square. 2. Why would 'distinct factors' not include the negative factors as well? (Which will make 1 have even number of distinct factors 1 and -1)

Please provide your reasons and explanations. Thank you.

Probably the best way of solving would be making the chart of perfect squares and its factors to check both statements, but below is the algebraic approach if needed.

Couple of things: 1. Note that if \(n\) is a perfect square powers of its prime factors must be even, for instance: \(36=2^2*3^2\), powers of prime factors of 2 and 3 are even.

2. There is a formula for Finding the Number of Factors of an Integer:

First make prime factorization of an integer \(n=a^p*b^q*c^r\), where \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\) are prime factors of \(n\) and \(p\), \(q\), and \(r\) are their powers.

The number of factors of \(n\) will be expressed by the formula \((p+1)(q+1)(r+1)\). NOTE: this will include 1 and n itself.

Example: Finding the number of all factors of 450: \(450=2^1*3^2*5^2\)

Total number of factors of 450 including 1 and 450 itself is \((1+1)*(2+1)*(2+1)=2*3*3=18\) factors.

3. A perfect square ALWAYS has an ODD number of Odd-factors, and EVEN number of Even-factors. For instance odd factors of 36 are 1, 3 and 9 (3 odd factor) and even factors are 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 36 (6 even factors).

Back to the original question:

Is the positive integer N a perfect square?

(1) The number of distinct factors of N is even --> let's say \(n=a^p*b^q*c^r\), given that the number of factors of \(n\) is even --> \((p+1)(q+1)(r+1)=even\). But as we concluded if n is a perfect square then powers of its primes \(p\), \(q\), and \(r\) must be even, and in this case number of factors would be \((p+1)(q+1)(r+1)=(even+1)(even+1)(even+1)=odd*odd*odd=odd\neq{even}\). Hence \(n\) can not be a perfect square. Sufficient.

(2) The sum of all distinct factors of N is even --> if n is a perfect square then (according to 3) sum of odd factors would be odd and sum of even factors would be even, so sum of all factors of perfect square would be \(odd+even=odd\neq{even}\). Hence \(n\) can not be a perfect square. Sufficient.

Answer: D.

There are some tips about the perfect square: • The number of distinct factors of a perfect square is ALWAYS ODD. • The sum of distinct factors of a perfect square is ALWAYS ODD. • A perfect square ALWAYS has an ODD number of Odd-factors, and EVEN number of Even-factors. • Perfect square always has even number of powers of prime factors.

Hope it helps.

Thanks Bunuel for reminding us the very useful properties mentioned above.

For those interested, we can easily justify why the sum of the distinct divisors of a perfect square is odd.

If the number N is an odd perfect square, then all its divisors are odd. They come in pairs, \((1,N), (d_1, N/d_1), (d_2,N/d_2)...\), except \(\sqrt{N}\) (we count it only once, its pair being itself). So, we have an odd number of odd divisors, whose sum will certainly be odd.

If N is an even perfect square, then N must be of the form \(N=2^{2n}M\), where M is an odd perfect square. All the odd divisors of N are the divisors of M, and as we have seen above, their sum (and number) is odd. All the even divisors of N are obviously even, so again, the sum of all the divisors is odd.
_________________

PhD in Applied Mathematics Love GMAT Quant questions and running.

Re: Is the positive integer N a perfect square? [#permalink]

Show Tags

26 Jul 2012, 13:39

But in this particular question, it has not been specified if N is not equal to one. Hence, N could be 1, perfect square, and have even number of factors namely 1 and -1.

But in this particular question, it has not been specified if N is not equal to one. Hence, N could be 1, perfect square, and have even number of factors namely 1 and -1.

Posted from my mobile device

Factor is a "positive divisor" (at least on the GMAT). For example the factors of 4 are 1, 2, and 4 ONLY.
_________________

How is B sufficient? Sum of distinct factors of a perfect square is odd, but if n is 2, then the sum is also odd.

The sum of distinct factors of a perfect square is ALWAYS ODD. (2) says that "the sum of all distinct factors of N is even", hence N is not a perfect square.
_________________

Re: Is the positive integer N a perfect square? [#permalink]

Show Tags

31 Jul 2012, 00:26

ashish8 wrote:

How is B sufficient? Sum of distinct factors of a perfect square is odd, but if n is 2, then the sum is also odd.

(2) states: The sum of all distinct factors of N is even. Since the sum of distinct factors of a perfect square must be odd, we can conclude that N is not a perfect square. So, the answer to the question "Is N a perfect square?" is a definite NO. Therefore, (2) sufficient.

Not only perfect squares have the sum of their distinct factors odd. As you mentioned, for 2, the sum of its factors is odd, and it is not a perfect square. So, if a number is a perfect square, then the sum of its factors is necessarily odd, but the reciprocal is not true. Meaning, if the sum of the factors is odd, the number is not necessarily a perfect square, it might be or not. But if the sum of the distinct factors is even, then certainly the number cannot be a perfect square.
_________________

PhD in Applied Mathematics Love GMAT Quant questions and running.

How is B sufficient? Sum of distinct factors of a perfect square is odd, but if n is 2, then the sum is also odd.

Also check this:

Tips about the perfect square: 1. The number of distinct factors of a perfect square is ALWAYS ODD. The reverse is also true: if a number has the odd number of distinct factors then it's a perfect square;

2. The sum of distinct factors of a perfect square is ALWAYS ODD. The reverse is NOT always true: a number may have the odd sum of its distinct factors and not be a perfect square. For example: 2, 8, 18 or 50;

3. A perfect square ALWAYS has an ODD number of Odd-factors, and EVEN number of Even-factors. The reverse is also true: if a number has an ODD number of Odd-factors, and EVEN number of Even-factors then it's a perfect square. For example: odd factors of 36 are 1, 3 and 9 (3 odd factor) and even factors are 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 36 (6 even factors);

4. Perfect square always has even powers of its prime factors. The reverse is also true: if a number has even powers of its prime factors then it's a perfect square. For example: \(36=2^2*3^2\), powers of prime factors 2 and 3 are even.

Please provide your reasons and explanations. Thank you.

1) The number of distinct factors of N is even.

Suppose N = 4. It has 3 distinct factors: 1, 2 and 4. Suppose N = 9. It has 3 distinct factors: 1, 3 and 9. Suppose N = 16. It has 5 distinct factors: 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16. Suppose N = 64. It has 7 distinct factors: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64. But that not the case. In fact, the case is opposite. So it is sufficient because N is not a square.

(2) The sum of all distinct factors of N is even.

If you follow the above pattern, you see 1 is always there. The sum of all distinct factors except 1 of N is even. If you add 1 on the even sum, that odd. So N is not a square. But that not the case. In fact, the case is opposite. So it is sufficient because N is again not a square.

So D.

PS: A perfect square always have odd number of factors, for e.g a integer \(n\) and its square \(n^2\)

Now, \(n\) will have always have even number of factors, (take any number and you will realise that factors come in pairs), now \(n^2\) will have all factors which \(n\) has + one more which is \(n^2\)

Hi there,

I have a problem with this method. I think it is flawed but luckily works here. We can see that the two statements should be true for perfect squares, but in no way have we proved that it is not true for non-perfect square. For instance, getting a few examples of perfect squares and seeing that the sum of the factors is always odd, doesn't imply that summing the factors of a non-perfect square would not be odd...

The only way to properly answer is to know the properties given by Bunuel IMO.

Re: Is the positive integer N a perfect square? [#permalink]

Show Tags

23 Nov 2014, 17:24

Hello from the GMAT Club BumpBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
_________________

Re: Is the positive integer N a perfect square? [#permalink]

Show Tags

02 Nov 2015, 11:12

Question here:

I thought perfect squares always have an even sum of powers of prime factors? For instance, in the example, 36 = 2^2 * 3^2, powers of 2 + 2 = 4. Yet when you look at the total number of factors (2+1) * (2+1) you get 9...and the explanation nulls statement 1 because there are an odd number of factors... Can anyone elaborate on this? Thank you!

I thought perfect squares always have an even sum of powers of prime factors? For instance, in the example, 36 = 2^2 * 3^2, powers of 2 + 2 = 4. Yet when you look at the total number of factors (2+1) * (2+1) you get 9...and the explanation nulls statement 1 because there are an odd number of factors... Can anyone elaborate on this? Thank you!

You are missing 1 important point.

When you look at number of factors of a perfect square you do ALL factors including 1 and the number itself.

Example, 25 = 5^2 ---> total number of factors = (2+1) =3 , (1,5,25). You can not just add the powers of perfect squares to get the total number of factors.

Statement 1 is sufficient as it gives a straight "no" to the question" is n a perfect square" as all perfect squares will have odd number of total factors.

Re: Is the positive integer N a perfect square? [#permalink]

Show Tags

22 Nov 2016, 01:58

Hello from the GMAT Club BumpBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
_________________

Happy New Year everyone! Before I get started on this post, and well, restarted on this blog in general, I wanted to mention something. For the past several months...

It’s quickly approaching two years since I last wrote anything on this blog. A lot has happened since then. When I last posted, I had just gotten back from...

Happy 2017! Here is another update, 7 months later. With this pace I might add only one more post before the end of the GSB! However, I promised that...

The words of John O’Donohue ring in my head every time I reflect on the transformative, euphoric, life-changing, demanding, emotional, and great year that 2016 was! The fourth to...