It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United

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It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2006, 11:10
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It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year. (A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least$20 billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues (C) illiteracy costs the United States at least$20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy (E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least$20 billion a year because of illiteracy
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by doe007 on 09 May 2013, 05:29, edited 1 time in total.
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28 Nov 2006, 12:57
C for me, we talking about the estimated illiteracy costs
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Re: SC on illiteracy costs ! [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2006, 21:44
438. It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least$20 billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues (C) illiteracy costs the United States at least$20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy (E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least$20 billion a year because of illiteracy
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30 Nov 2006, 20:43
"the annual cost of illiteracy to the US"... a bit awkward isn't it?

It's C then.
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Sociologists estimate that the annual cost to the region of [#permalink]

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09 May 2013, 02:28
Sociologists estimate that the annual cost to the region of unemployment in lost productivity and trade revenues is more than $10 billion per year. A the annual cost to the region of unemployment in lost productivity and trade revenues is more than$10 billion per year
B the annual cost of unemployment to the region is more than $10 billion per year because of lost productivity and trade revenues C unemployment costs the region more than$10 billion per year in lost productivity and trade revenues
D $10 billion per year in lost productivity and trade revenues is the annual cost to the region of unemployment E lost productivity and trade revenues cost the region at least$10 billion per year because of unemployment

just wanted to know Annual and per year is redundant phrase?

Grockit
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Last edited by Zarrolou on 09 May 2013, 02:30, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Sociologists estimate that the annual cost to the region of [#permalink]

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09 May 2013, 04:05
fozzzy wrote:
Sociologists estimate that the annual cost to the region of unemployment in lost productivity and trade revenues is more than $10 billion per year. A the annual cost to the region of unemployment in lost productivity and trade revenues is more than$10 billion per year
B the annual cost of unemployment to the region is more than $10 billion per year because of lost productivity and trade revenues C unemployment costs the region more than$10 billion per year in lost productivity and trade revenues
D $10 billion per year in lost productivity and trade revenues is the annual cost to the region of unemployment E lost productivity and trade revenues cost the region at least$10 billion per year because of unemployment

just wanted to know Annual and per year is redundant phrase?

Grockit

I believe yes ...
there is no need to use per year if we have already used annually, because both mean the same.
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United [#permalink]

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09 May 2013, 05:20
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Redundancy of annual and per year; kill A,B and D. Between C and E, E has a peculiar twist to the meaning. E, per se, may be absurdly taken to mean that the lost industrial output and tax revenues lacked literacy and cost the country the estimated amount. So C
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United [#permalink]

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09 May 2013, 05:43
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jyotsnasarabu wrote:
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year. (A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least$20 billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues (C) illiteracy costs the United States at least$20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy (E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least$20 billion a year because of illiteracy

(A) "annual" + "a year" --> redundant. Sentence is verbose and awkwardly structured.
(B) "annual" + "a year" --> redundant. "because of" is incorrect idiomatically.
(C) Correct.
(D) "annual" + "a year" --> redundant. Sentence is verbose and awkwardly structured.
(E) Meaning changed.
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United [#permalink]

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09 May 2013, 06:14
does anyone have a list of common redundant phrases?
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United [#permalink]

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09 May 2013, 06:45
fozzzy wrote:
does anyone have a list of common redundant phrases?

You may look into common-redundancies-152537.html

I am not posting the list here so as to stick to the topic.
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2014, 05:33
jyotsnasarabu wrote:
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year. (A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least$20 billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues (C) illiteracy costs the United States at least$20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy (E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least$20 billion a year because of illiteracy

Can someone explain how D is not the right option.
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2014, 06:18
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Can someone explain how D is not the right option.

D says: $20 billion a year In GMAT land, that is a reasonably big change in meaning, to warrant rejection of D (among other errors, which have already been pointed out) _________________ Thanks, Ashish (GMAT Faculty @ EducationAisle) http://www.EducationAisle.com Sentence Correction Nirvana available at Amazon.in and Flipkart Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com GMAT Club Legend Joined: 01 Oct 2013 Posts: 10534 Followers: 919 Kudos [?]: 203 [0], given: 0 Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United [#permalink] ### Show Tags 27 Jul 2016, 02:19 Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email. Manager Joined: 30 Sep 2015 Posts: 51 Location: United States (MD) Concentration: Marketing, Entrepreneurship GMAT 1: 620 Q49 V25 GMAT 2: 620 Q49 V27 WE: Marketing (Consumer Products) Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 43 Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United [#permalink] ### Show Tags 01 Nov 2016, 05:24 It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least$20 billion a year.

First, we understand the intended meaning: Something has been estimated about illiteracy. It costs the US at least certain amount of money in two fields/factors.

Identify errors
From the original sentence, we see that the underlined portion is a dependent clause.
1. Redundancy: Annual cost & $20 billion a year is unnecessary. (A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least$20 billion a year. Incorrect
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues. Incorrect (C) illiteracy costs the United States at least$20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues. Correct
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy. Incorrect (E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least$20 billion a year because of illiteracy.
This option changes the intended meaning. It is establishing a causal-relation.Als, it is now quantifying the cost of lost industrial output and tax revenue, not of illiteracy anymore.
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United   [#permalink] 01 Nov 2016, 05:24
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