It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound

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It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2012, 11:16
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It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound societal instability are great works of literature produced. During the first century B.C., Rome experienced almost constant civil war accompanied by social upheaval. It wasn't until the ascension of Nerva to the throne in 96 A.D. that the situation stabilized. Throughout the second century A.D., Rome experienced a century of uninterrupted peace and stability.

If all of the statements in the passage are true, then which of the following must also be true?

a. During the first century B.C., great works of literature were produced in Rome.
b. Roman art of the first century B.C. was superior to Roman art of the second century A.D.
c. During the second century A.D., no great works of literature were produced in Rome.
d. Historically, great works of literature can stir emotions that find their expression in political action.
e. The first century A.D. was a time of decreased literary production in Rome.
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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2012, 11:18
I am confused between A and C. Can somebody help me out with this??
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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2012, 13:12
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This question is about what are called necessary and sufficient conditions. We learn in the question that "great works of literature are *only* produced in unstable times". That is, "unstable times" are needed in order for great literature to be written. So if we don't have unstable times, we don't have great literature, and C is correct.

A is not correct. Nowhere does it say that "unstable times" *guarantee* that great literature will be produced. All we know is that without them, there is no chance of having any great literature. But with them, we might, or we might not. In technical terms, "unstable times" are a "necessary condition" for great literature, but are not a "sufficient condition" (they don't guarantee anything).

A much more obvious example of the same principle - suppose a question says:

The only way you can win the lottery is to buy a lottery ticket. If this statement is true, what must be true?
A. If you buy a lottery ticket, you will win the lottery.
B. ...
C. If you don't buy a lottery ticket, you won't win the lottery.
.

Clearly A is wrong, and C is correct - buying the ticket is necessary to win, but it guarantees nothing. This is just a simplified version of the question in your post (I've just replaced "during unstable times" with "buy a lottery ticket" and "great works of literature are produced" with "win the lottery").
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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2012, 01:52
Correct explanation. it is a very good example of difference b/w necessary and sufficient conditions.

IanStewart wrote:
This question is about what are called necessary and sufficient conditions. We learn in the question that "great works of literature are *only* produced in unstable times". That is, "unstable times" are needed in order for great literature to be written. So if we don't have unstable times, we don't have great literature, and C is correct.

A is not correct. Nowhere does it say that "unstable times" *guarantee* that great literature will be produced. All we know is that without them, there is no chance of having any great literature. But with them, we might, or we might not. In technical terms, "unstable times" are a "necessary condition" for great literature, but are not a "sufficient condition" (they don't guarantee anything).

A much more obvious example of the same principle - suppose a question says:

The only way you can win the lottery is to buy a lottery ticket. If this statement is true, what must be true?
A. If you buy a lottery ticket, you will win the lottery.
B. ...
C. If you don't buy a lottery ticket, you won't win the lottery.
.

Clearly A is wrong, and C is correct - buying the ticket is necessary to win, but it guarantees nothing. This is just a simplified version of the question in your post (I've just replaced "during unstable times" with "buy a lottery ticket" and "great works of literature are produced" with "win the lottery").

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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2012, 03:43
It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound societal instability are great works of literature produced. During the first century B.C., Rome experienced almost constant civil war accompanied by social upheaval. It wasn't until the ascension of Nerva to the throne in 96 A.D. that the situation stabilized. Throughout the second century A.D., Rome experienced a century of uninterrupted peace and stability.

If all of the statements in the passage are true, then which of the following must also be true?

a. During the first century B.C., great works of literature were produced in Rome. Not necessarily, the passage states that great works of literature are only produced in times of instability, that doesn't mean that each time of instability great works MUST be produced.
b. Roman art of the first century B.C. was superior to Roman art of the second century A.D. Nothing in the passage implies that, they might be both great since they were produced in a time of instability, but which one is superior?! no one knows.
c. During the second century A.D., no great works of literature were produced in Rome. Correct. The second century was a time of stability as mentioned in the passage, and since geat works of literature are ONLY produced in times of instability, no great works could have been produced in the second century
d. Historically, great works of literature can stir emotions that find their expression in political action.Out of scope
e. The first century A.D. was a time of decreased literary production in Rome.No evidence in the passage would support this.
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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2012, 09:38
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+1 C

The argument doesn't mention that ALWAYS there will be excelent literature when there is polytical inestability.
It just mentions that this literature only appear in those conditions.
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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2012, 11:34
Could you please share the source of this question and the OA
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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2012, 12:35
selfAnnihilation wrote:
Could you please share the source of this question and the OA

Its from Veritas mock test.
@Ian- Thanks a lot man!! The explanation was great.
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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2013, 11:11
is the structure like this???

sufficient condition---literature produced.
necessary condition--- societal instability.

literature produced------> societal instability
hence
societal stability---------->NO literature produced.

and this is said in option C only...

pls correct me if my understanding is wrong...
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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2013, 12:02
mehulsayani wrote:
It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound societal instability are great works of literature produced. During the first century B.C., Rome experienced almost constant civil war accompanied by social upheaval. It wasn't until the ascension of Nerva to the throne in 96 A.D. that the situation stabilized. Throughout the second century A.D., Rome experienced a century of uninterrupted peace and stability.

If all of the statements in the passage are true, then which of the following must also be true?

a. During the first century B.C., great works of literature were produced in Rome.
b. Roman art of the first century B.C. was superior to Roman art of the second century A.D.
c. During the second century A.D., no great works of literature were produced in Rome.
d. Historically, great works of literature can stir emotions that find their expression in political action.
e. The first century A.D. was a time of decreased literary production in Rome.

IMO, C is correct.

First of all, this is MUST BE TRUE question, any option that maybe true is wrong.

ANALYZE THE PREMISE:
Only in conditions of profound societal instability are great works of literature produced
During the first century B.C., Rome experienced a societal instability
After the ascension of Nerva to the throne in 96 A.D, Rome experienced a societal stability

ANALYZE EACH OPTION:

a. During the first century B.C., great works of literature were produced in Rome.
Wrong. Very tempting but wrong. Great works were produced only in societal instability. This is necessary condition. "A happens only if B happens" does not mean "any time B happens, A must happen".

b. Roman art of the first century B.C. was superior to Roman art of the second century A.D.
Wrong. Out of scope

c. During the second century A.D., no great works of literature were produced in Rome.
Correct. This is MUST BE TRUE option. Logic:"A happens only if B happens" ==> if No B, A will not happen for sure.

d. Historically, great works of literature can stir emotions that find their expression in political action.
Wrong. Out of scope

e. The first century A.D. was a time of decreased literary production in Rome.
Wrong. Out of scope.

Hope it helps.
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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2014, 07:25
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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2016, 12:02
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound   [#permalink] 07 Feb 2016, 12:02
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