Find all School-related info fast with the new School-Specific MBA Forum

It is currently 19 Apr 2014, 07:53

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
Manager
Manager
Joined: 14 Jun 2005
Posts: 100
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 0

It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2006, 09:30
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  5% (low)

Question Stats:

0% (00:00) correct 0% (00:00) wrong based on 0 sessions
It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause which is known only by one particular effect. This is incorrect because the inferred effect must necessarily be produced by some different characteristic of the cause than is the observed effect, which already serves entirely to describe the cause.
Which one of the following arguments makes the same logical error as the one described by the author in the passage?
(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the children’s hospital. x
(B) The radioactive material caused a genetic mutation, which, in turn, caused the birth defect. Therefore, the radioactive material caused the birth defect. x
(C) The tiny, unseen atom is the source of immense power. It must be its highly complex structure that produces this power.
(D) The city orchestra received more funds from the local government this year than ever before. Clearly this administration is more civic-minded than previous ones.
(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate.
Director
Director
Joined: 24 Oct 2005
Posts: 577
Location: NYC
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 6 [0], given: 0

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2006, 12:00
I am lost between effect and cause.. ahh..
_________________

Success is my only option, failure is not -- Eminem

VP
VP
Joined: 22 Aug 2005
Posts: 1128
Location: CA
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 15 [0], given: 0

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2006, 13:27
I am lost too but will pick D if I have to :)

The argument seems make fallacy that: "an effect different than observed one" necessarily means "different characteristics of the cause".

D is similar when the effect "more fund received" is necessarily caused by a different cause "more civic minded".
_________________

Whether you think you can or think you can't. You're right! - Henry Ford (1863 - 1947)

Director
Director
Joined: 27 Feb 2006
Posts: 634
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 13 [0], given: 0

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2006, 14:56
As I am not able to get the exact flaw in the argument, I will try to eliminate the choices:

In A, C and D the reasoning is the same. A fact is stated and the persona makes a deduction. So these 3 choices are out !

B states a reasoning like :
X causes Y
Y causes Z
so
X causes Z
This does not seem to be in accordance with the original argument. Thus, I pick ^ E ^
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
Joined: 08 Sep 2004
Posts: 259
Location: New York City, USA
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 0

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2006, 20:42
Between B and E, I would go for B.

The flawed logic goes 'second and different effect from a cause which is known only by one particular effect'.
So radioactive mat'l causes genetic mutation which in turn causes birth defect. So radioactive mat'l causes birth defect is flawed.

In E, the same cause X (heating) gives multiple effects (evaporates water, 100 other liquids). So one cause-one effect relationship is not there.

- Vipin
VP
VP
User avatar
Joined: 07 Nov 2005
Posts: 1134
Location: India
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 27 [0], given: 1

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2006, 21:19
I believe it should be A :!:
Here's my explaination :
Let A be the cause and B be its particular effect & C a secondary effect.

The first line then states that it is illogical for A(cause) to have C as an effect since it has B as its one particular effect.
The second line then negates the first line saying that C can be an effect due to some other characteristics of A(cause), other than that which is causing B.
Thus A(cause) can result in both B and C as 2 different effects.

In option A :
' gave a thousand dollars to our historical society '------>B(particular effect)
' also volunteers at the children’s hospital '----------------->C(secondary effect)
Thus A(cause) can result in both B and C as 2 different effects.
Director
Director
Joined: 26 Sep 2005
Posts: 587
Location: Munich,Germany
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 7 [0], given: 0

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2006, 21:36
nerve wracking. E.
Manager
Manager
Joined: 14 Jun 2005
Posts: 100
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 0

 [#permalink] New post 08 Mar 2006, 15:00
buzzgaurav wrote:
I believe it should be A :!:
Here's my explaination :
Let A be the cause and B be its particular effect & C a secondary effect.

The first line then states that it is illogical for A(cause) to have C as an effect since it has B as its one particular effect.
The second line then negates the first line saying that C can be an effect due to some other characteristics of A(cause), other than that which is causing B.
Thus A(cause) can result in both B and C as 2 different effects.

In option A :
' gave a thousand dollars to our historical society '------>B(particular effect)
' also volunteers at the children’s hospital '----------------->C(secondary effect)
Thus A(cause) can result in both B and C as 2 different effects.



But isnt this NOT following the error?
Intern
Intern
Joined: 19 Dec 2004
Posts: 19
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

 [#permalink] New post 08 Mar 2006, 15:29
I would go with D
VP
VP
User avatar
Joined: 07 Nov 2005
Posts: 1134
Location: India
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 27 [0], given: 1

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 08 Mar 2006, 20:07
hellom3p wrote:
buzzgaurav wrote:
I believe it should be A :!:
Here's my explaination :
Let A be the cause and B be its particular effect & C a secondary effect.

The first line then states that it is illogical for A(cause) to have C as an effect since it has B as its one particular effect.
The second line then negates the first line saying that C can be an effect due to some other characteristics of A(cause), other than that which is causing B.
Thus A(cause) can result in both B and C as 2 different effects.

In option A :
' gave a thousand dollars to our historical society '------>B(particular effect)
' also volunteers at the children’s hospital '----------------->C(secondary effect)
Thus A(cause) can result in both B and C as 2 different effects.


But isnt this NOT following the error?


Picked Up this explaination from somewhere :
The author argues that a "cause" cannot be attributed to two effects as any effect other than the observed one can be explained by some characteristic of the cause which means there is only one cause.

Argument A proceeds similarly by attributing the second of the two actions to the same person since that person performed the first action.

My conclusion in both the cases also states the same.
Guess this helps, nice question nonetheless.
BTW I'm not that good at CR :oops:
Manager
Manager
Joined: 06 Aug 2005
Posts: 92
Location: Minneapolis
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 2 [0], given: 0

Re: CR - effect [#permalink] New post 09 Mar 2006, 23:04
hellom3p wrote:
It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause which is known only by one particular effect. This is incorrect because the inferred effect must necessarily be produced by some different characteristic of the cause than is the observed effect, which already serves entirely to describe the cause.
Which one of the following arguments makes the same logical error as the one described by the author in the passage?
(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the children’s hospital. x
(B) The radioactive material caused a genetic mutation, which, in turn, caused the birth defect. Therefore, the radioactive material caused the birth defect. x
(C) The tiny, unseen atom is the source of immense power. It must be its highly complex structure that produces this power.
(D) The city orchestra received more funds from the local government this year than ever before. Clearly this administration is more civic-minded than previous ones.
(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate.


I will go with B
I am searching for the observed effect for which there is only one cause. A, C, D and E sound like an effect with multiple causes.
Manager
Manager
Joined: 14 Jun 2005
Posts: 100
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 0

 [#permalink] New post 10 Mar 2006, 09:45
OA is A
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 24 Sep 2005
Posts: 1902
Followers: 9

Kudos [?]: 75 [0], given: 0

GMAT Tests User
Re: CR - effect [#permalink] New post 19 Mar 2006, 22:16
It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause which is known only by one particular effect. This is incorrect because the inferred effect must necessarily be produced by some different characteristic of the cause than is the observed effect, which already serves entirely to describe the cause.
Which one of the following arguments makes the same logical error as the one described by the author in the passage?

The reasoning of the argument is : we know an effect of X ---> we can describe X ( not clearly points out whether we can describe entirely X) ----> we know X ---> we know another effect of X.

(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the children’s hospital. x
----> due to the act of the donor ----> he's humanitarian ----> thus, he does other kind of donation. ---> similar to the reasoning of the argument.

(B) The radioactive material caused a genetic mutation, which, in turn, caused the birth defect. Therefore, the radioactive material caused the birth defect. x
-----> X causes Y, Y causes Z ---> X causes Z ---> this is a bridging logic ----> not similar to the original reasoning.

(C) The tiny, unseen atom is the source of immense power. It must be its highly complex structure that produces this power.
----> "unseen" somehow means "complex" ---> "complex structure" means "unseen structures" ---> somewhat logical --> not as flawed as the original reasoning.

(D) The city orchestra received more funds from the local government this year than ever before. Clearly this administration is more civic-minded than previous ones.
----> This one is somewhat similar to original reasoning but the reasoning here stops at : we know the effect of X ---> we know X.
(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate
----> the reasoning here is: we know X, we know X 1, we know X2, we know X100 ----> we know the entire set of X ----> different from that of original reasoning.
Re: CR - effect   [#permalink] 19 Mar 2006, 22:16
    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
New posts It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from Geethu 7 11 Aug 2004, 10:29
New posts It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from Vithal 9 20 Mar 2005, 17:13
New posts 1 It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from kripalkavi 5 28 Jan 2007, 20:26
New posts 2 It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from neelabhmahesh 2 29 Jan 2008, 00:24
Popular new posts 6 Experts publish their posts in the topic It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from tenaman10 11 17 Jun 2009, 22:21
Display posts from previous: Sort by

It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.