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It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from

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It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from [#permalink] New post 29 Jan 2008, 00:24
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It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause which is known only by one particular effect. This is incorrect because the inferred effect must necessarily be produced by some different characteristic of the cause than is the observed effect, which already serves entirely to describe the cause.
Which one of the following arguments makes the same logical error as the one described by the author in the passage?
(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the children’s hospital.
(B) The radioactive material caused a genetic mutation, which, in turn, caused the birth defect. Therefore, the radioactive material caused the birth defect.
(C) The tiny, unseen atom is the source of immense power. It must be its highly complex structure that produces this power.
(D) The city orchestra received more funds from the local government this year than ever before. Clearly this administration is more civic-minded than previous ones.
(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate.

Explanation please.
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Neelabh Mahesh

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Re: CR: Cause and effect [#permalink] New post 29 Jan 2008, 07:44
is it B? i cant explain it though
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Re: CR: Cause and effect [#permalink] New post 30 Jan 2008, 00:39
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(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the children’s hospital. (Hold it)

(B) The radioactive material caused a genetic mutation, which, in turn, caused the birth defect. Therefore, the radioactive material caused the birth defect.(The same caused both effects – eliminate it)

(C) The tiny, unseen atom is the source of immense power. It must be its highly complex structure that produces this power. (Eliminate it)

(D) The city orchestra received more funds from the local government this year than ever before. Clearly this administration is more civic-minded than previous ones. (Eliminate it)

(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate. (Eliminate it)

Answer: A
Re: CR: Cause and effect   [#permalink] 30 Jan 2008, 00:39
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