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It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1

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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1 [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2013, 23:15
chunjuwu wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

(A) It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars
(B) it fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth
(C) It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.
(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

Note: There are two questions available with the similar stimulus and same first line but different question. The other question (complete the passage) is discussed in: it-is-theoretically-possible-that-bacteria-developed-on-q2-46449.html


Whats wrong with D and E...

Can someone explain...?
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1 [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2013, 00:07
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jaituteja wrote:
chunjuwu wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

(A) It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars
(B) it fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth
(C) It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.
(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

Note: There are two questions available with the similar stimulus and same first line but different question. The other question (complete the passage) is discussed in: it-is-theoretically-possible-that-bacteria-developed-on-q2-46449.html


Whats wrong with D and E...

Can someone explain...?


Hi jaituteja

I'm glad to help.

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

Fact: strains of bacteria from different planets  have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time.
Fact: NO two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets
Conclusion: if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

Assumption: There is NOT ANY CASE that all bacterial strains on Earth came from Mars. Because if All bacterial on Earth originated from Mars ==> we CANNOT compare bacteria from Mars with bacteria on Earth to make conclusion, because they are the same.

D and E, which one is correct?

(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
Correct. It attacks the conclusion by demonstrating the case that all bacterial strains on Earth actually traveled to Earth from Mars. we CANNOT compare bacteria from Mars with bacteria on Earth, because they are the same.

(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.
Wrong. E does not weaken the point “all bacteria arrived on Earth from Mars must have died out” at all. Don’t go too FAR. You CANNOT assume that “strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out” = all bacteria living on Earth arrived from Mars. Because there would be the case that some bacteria originated form Earth died out later, but others still alive. Therefore, the conclusion based on the comparison MAY BE valid ==> You cannot weaken the conclusion by using E. That's why E differs from D.

Hope it helps.
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1 [#permalink] New post 24 Jan 2014, 07:59
jaituteja wrote:
chunjuwu wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

(A) It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars
(B) it fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth
(C) It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.
(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

Note: There are two questions available with the similar stimulus and same first line but different question. The other question (complete the passage) is discussed in: it-is-theoretically-possible-that-bacteria-developed-on-q2-46449.html


Whats wrong with D and E...

Can someone explain...?
This is one of the most twister questions I have seen on GMAT. But not because of logic but sentence construction. I would have been scratching for long in understanding the meaning. Lets deconstruct.

Fact 1: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite.

Fact 2: However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and
Not of much significance

Fact3: no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets.
It looked like an SC question to me for first 20 times I looked at it. But, guess GMAT is all about persistence
Let us first remove this "no" from beginning to understand the meaning: "two bacterial strains on Earth are different"
Now place "not" after "are": "two bacterial strains on Earth are not different"

So, this sentence basically says that bacterial strains on earth are so same that they must be of only one origin.

Conclusion: So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.
Bacteria from Mars, if on earth, must have died out.

Summary: We can have only one source for all bacteria on earth. So all bacteria from Mars, if reached earth, would have died out on earth.

What will weaken this? Bacteria from Mars didn't die.
D says exactly that.

E says that earth bacteria died out. It is extra information but doesnt deal with Martian bacteria(which is part of conclusion)

Correct me if this line of thinking looks wrong..
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1   [#permalink] 24 Jan 2014, 07:59
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