Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system

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Senior Manager
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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2003, 20:02
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37% (02:10) correct 63% (01:14) wrong based on 1872 sessions

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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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New!
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13 Sep 2003, 21:47
MartinMag wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint,
a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its

ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint,
a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is
a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system
of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system
of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system
of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

E is convoluted...
Japan's is a culture of X , of a system of Y which makes...
Also "which" has no clear logical referent

C ,B and A.... Japan ""has"" a culture/system....and Japan "is" a country!
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14 Sep 2003, 07:22
Barely missed

Probably because of the parallelism with "OF"

What do you think?
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14 Sep 2003, 07:44
MartinMag wrote:
Barely missed

Probably because of the parallelism with "OF"

What do you think?

Would you mind telling me the source of this SC..

It is difficult to see why E is better than D

thanks
praetorian

Last edited by Praetorian on 15 Sep 2003, 06:32, edited 1 time in total.
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14 Sep 2003, 20:35

Could you explain a little further? Why is E wrong?
Is "that" better than "which" ?

Thanks and sorry again

Martin
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15 Sep 2003, 01:50
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MartinMag wrote:

Could you explain a little further? Why is E wrong?
Is "that" better than "which" ?

Thanks and sorry again

Martin

In D, The clause starting with "that" is a RESTRICTIVE clause...how do i know that?

Remove the "that" clause..we are left with a run on sentence.

With Restrictive Clauses, ALWAYS use THAT.

NOTE:
Its true that both "that" and "which" can be used to start restrictive clauses...but "that" is always preferred.

So we zoom in to D..[/b]

Another reason for rejecting E...

Japan's is a culture of X, of a system of forms...this structure is not quite correct...

Culture and System are two different things.. isnt it?

Culture of a System of.......isnt that messed up?

correct version can be:

Japan's is a culture of X and a system of Y that makes its Z

That starts a restrictive clause providing essential information.. no commas ever for "that"

The book, which is on the table, is mine...wrong

If we remove the red part, you will ask...which book....isnt it?

The book that is on the table is mine...correct

The sentence in blue is thus integral to the sentence.

Here we have complete information about the book...so this is fine
So if you get rid of a "which" clause ...it "should not" change the meaning of the sentence..if it does, then your sentence construction is wrong.....the Which clause is usually set of from the sentence by commas...

Be advised..there may be cases where ETS will introduce the same error in ALL the choices...in that case, dont lose sight of the fact that you got to pick the BEST answer....for example , you may have five choices...all of these have no comma before which...in that case..you can be sure that the rule " no comma before which" is not tested here.

Is that good enough?

Thanks
Praetorian

Last edited by Praetorian on 15 Sep 2003, 06:31, edited 2 times in total.
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15 Sep 2003, 06:29
Hey Martin

I made some changes to the above post ...

Thanks
Praetorian
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15 Sep 2003, 06:50
Thanks a lot Praetorian

Now I see it
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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2006, 14:05
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its

(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its

(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
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06 Jun 2006, 14:34
a system, which "makes" not "making" so this eliminates A and C

possessive Japan's followed by "to be" is wrong, so left out with B

B is parallel and uses "which makes," so it is my OA
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06 Jun 2006, 15:02
I would say B as well, was a bit confused by it though...comparing japan to a system/culture instead of a country.
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Re: SC - ever-present congestion [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2006, 19:50
selene wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its

B is the least harmful but also has a flaw.

what refers to "which"? seems which means "culture". normally "which" refers to the noun that precedes "which".
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06 Jun 2006, 19:53
I'm not sure but it seems A for me only because all of the others are not corredt. B was my second choice but it has "which" that refers to culture but is far from "culture" in the sentence.
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06 Jun 2006, 20:33
Will go with A.
B/E have problem with which.
C - Japan is not a culture. A looks better than D
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06 Jun 2006, 20:35
"which" clearly refers to the system

Japan, blah-blah, is a system OF (red flag!) blah, blah and blah, WHICH...

a system "of blah, blah and blah" is a prepositional phrase that needs to be eliminated to see what "which" refers to!

makes its... refers to system; "making" is incorrect

hope this helps.

Last edited by u2lover on 06 Jun 2006, 20:42, edited 1 time in total.
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06 Jun 2006, 20:38
Hey what's the OA .. it seems too confusing ... How cud Japan be a culture ... and what's japan's is ?? ... in that case A looks better than all but not without doubts..
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06 Jun 2006, 21:05
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It's between B and D.
I would go with B.

Ok let's take D first:

Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable.

We may think "Japan's is" as "Culture of Japan" and can rewrite the sentence as
"Culture of Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable."

However, a culture can not be a system.
Moreover "ever-present congestion" is not clear. It seems as if congestion is present everywhere. Actually it should say congestion is present everywhere in Japan.

So D is out.

In B

Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Here Japan can be a system.
I am not sure if it's appropriate to say "Japan is a culture".
"its" clearly says about Japan's Congestion.

So IMO B should be the answer.

Regards,
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07 Jun 2006, 09:18
A: wrong use of tense in ",system ... making"
B: 'that' would be better since the following clause is an essential element (Why is congestion is tolerable in Japan)
C: same as A
D: seems OK
E: "which" missing comma

I am NOT crystral clear and thus an OA and accompanying explanation would help
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07 Jun 2006, 19:34
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Going against the gang. I will go with E.

A, B and C can be eliminated easliy for wrong comparison between Japan and culture.

Now the tough choice is between D and E but I think E wins. Why? Let me try:

D) Japan's is
a culture of accommodation and constraint,
a system of forms, etiquette, and images
that makes the

Carefully look at the ||ism. This doesn't make sense. In the first we are saying "Japan's is a culture of......" and in second we are saying "a system of......"

(E) Japan's is a culture
of accommodation and constraint,
of a system of forms, etiquette, and images
which makes the

Here ||ism is there. Subject here is "culture" not the Japan and "which" is clearly referring to culture. We don't need comma.
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08 Jun 2006, 03:16
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OA is ^ D ^

Here we should talk about the culture so we need "Japan's". Otherwise we would be trying to find a connection between Japan and the culture and that is not what we want ..

So we are left with D and E.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

In E we have the redundancy with the repetition of "of". It is not necessary.

But the main subject is that "which" in E has no clear referrant. As we use "which" with non restrictive clauses and "that" with restrcitive clauses, "that" is better for this question.
08 Jun 2006, 03:16

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