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# Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that

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Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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06 May 2008, 20:29
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Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating

OA:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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07 May 2008, 00:37
sondenso wrote:
19.
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating

C, reasoning is as follows, 40% of the times I am wrong, so don't take my explanations too seriously here.

1)robots (plural) that can identify and then respond (that can action 1 and then action 2) ; eliminate A, B, D,E

2)we now get to their/researchers. Since "their" could be referring to both robots and researchers, added reasoning for A,D.

Which leaves C, E, since I mentioned I'd prefer "action 1 and then action 2" I am going for C

Requesting OA to put me out of my anxiety!
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07 May 2008, 02:41
C for me. C has coherent sentences on either side of the ;
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07 May 2008, 18:52
rw6183 wrote:
sondenso wrote:
19.
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating

C, reasoning is as follows, 40% of the times I am wrong, so don't take my explanations too seriously here.

1)robots (plural) that can identify and then respond (that can action 1 and then action 2) ; eliminate A, B, D,E

2)we now get to their/researchers. Since "their" could be referring to both robots and researchers, added reasoning for A,D.

Which leaves C, E, since I mentioned I'd prefer "action 1 and then action 2" I am going for C

Requesting OA to put me out of my anxiety!

I like the way you make reasoning!
You, 60% you are right, so should not hestitate to take your explanations too seriously here. We learn from that serious.

OA is C
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2012, 20:06
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The answer is definitely C here:

A. The pronoun "they" is ambiguous in this sentence - we are not sure whether this word refers to the researchers or the robots. Also, "primarily creating" is incorrect. This should actually be "primarily to create." The use of "to which they will respond" is wordy - a better version would be to place this in parallel to "can identify human facial expressions" to show that the robots can do both things.

B. The second half of the sentence (the part after the semicolon), is a fragment because there is no subject. This is incorrect because a semicolon should be sandwiched by 2 independent clauses. Also, we should put "then responding to them" in parallel with "can identify human facial expressions" to show that the robots can do both things.

C. This is the correct answer. The terms "identify and respond" are in parallel to describe the 2 things that the robots can do. Also, the second half of the sentence begins with the subject, rather than the pronoun "their" to remove the ambiguity.

D. "As well as giving" is wordy and it is not parallel to "can identify human facial expressions." Also, "creation of" should be "the creation of."

E. The word "responding" is not parallel to "identify." Also, the placement of the modifier "primarily" should be in front of the word "goal," not at the beginning of the 2nd sentence.
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2012, 21:59
C for me too. Rest are just wrong construction around semicolon and ambiguous "they"
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2012, 03:41
+1 C

Choice narrowed down to C & E

C is the clear winner
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2014, 04:05
sondenso wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating

OA:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

A) I was going to say the "they" is wrong but actually "to which" makes it right because it implies the robots respond to the facial expressions. HOWEVER, the "their" erroneously refers to robots instead of researchers. Therefore, A is gone.

B) "then respondING" should be "and then respond". the verb-ing form is simply incorrect in this context.

C) in this case "them" refers to the facial expressions that the robots respond to, this is the correct intent of the author. Furthermore, "the researchers'" corrects the ambiguity we had with A; you cannot use "they" to refer to researchers this far into the sentence because the pronoun might refer to two other objects before it even begins to refer to the subject (researchers). Of course, "is" refers to "goal" and NOT to researchers and thus "is", is in fact correct. CORRECT ANSWER

D) "as well as" is weird and wordy. And again, verb-ing form does not work here, giving should be give. And AGAIN, the pronoun "their" erroneously refers to something other than researchers

E) Again, verb-ing is wrong, also "is creating" is wrong it should be the infinitive "[is] to create".

This is a classical "find the grammatical errors" because for me, ALL the wrong answers have clear grammatical issues and thus we do not need to be too careful about intended meaning.
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Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2014, 20:11
Hi e-gmat,

the pronouns as usual are very confusing. I don't know how to draw a border line between unambiguous and ambiguous.

In the the article "Debunking myths" we are told that "A Pronoun should have ONE LOGICAL ANTECEDENT".

Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

In the video explanation also, it is explained that "they" has a logical antecedent "robots" and "their" has logical antecedent "researchers".

So, when we are told that there is only ONE LOGICAL ANTECEDENT for both the pronouns then from where does ambiguity comes into picture.

Plz suggest.
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2014, 04:50
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TGC wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

the pronouns as usual are very confusing. I don't know how to draw a border line between unambiguous and ambiguous.

In the the article "Debunking myths" we are told that "A Pronoun should have ONE LOGICAL ANTECEDENT".

Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

In the video explanation also, it is explained that "they" has a logical antecedent "robots" and "their" has logical antecedent "researchers".

So, when we are told that there is only ONE LOGICAL ANTECEDENT for both the pronouns then from where does ambiguity comes into picture.

Plz suggest.

Hi Saurabh,
Thank you for posting your query here.

It's true that a pronoun should always have one and only one logical antecedent to be correct. However, the grammatical reference of a pronoun should also be correct. So, a pronoun must refer to the intended noun logically as well as grammatically. Let's take an official example to understand it (OG13 Q#78):

• A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers;
• the question is
o whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses
 after their horns are trimmed.

The explanation for this question in OG says that the pronoun "their" is ambiguous. Now, logically "their" can only refer to rhinoceroses, because tourists can't have horns. However, its placement makes it ambiguous. Because a pronoun placed at the beginning of a clause refers to the subject of the preceding clause (that has a noun as its subject). So, this official sentence tells us that a pronoun should have logical as well as grammatical clarity in referring to its antecedent.

Now, if we apply the same thing to the above question:

• Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots
o that can identify human facial expressions,
 to which they will then respond;
• their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

Here again, the pronoun "they" logically refers to the noun "robots". However its placement suggests that it refers to the subject of the first clause i.e. Japanese Researchers.

So, this is the reason why this reference is said to be ambiguous.

Hope this helps.
Regards,
Deepak
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Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2015, 00:58
We can solve this one quickly --> eliminate b,d and E because of the parallelism CAN IDENTIFY .... RESPOND (this structure is violated here). So we are left with A and C --> in C pronoun problems have been eliminated, after a semicolon it begins with RESEARCHERS', why think about pronoun ambiguity, when in this choice its clearly eliminated.... + identify and respond must be parallel and must be connected with AND
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2015, 10:49
sondenso wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
they and their are ambiguous, both can refer to researches and robots

(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
semi-colon indicates that a new clause is coming, but the new clause does not have a verb.

(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create

(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
as well as - not preferable
giving is not parallel to identify
why parallelism error? because now this choice gives a list of things the robots can do: identify and give a response
their - is ambiguous.

(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating
same parallelism error as in D.
plus this choice has a meaning error. the goal is a robot, and not creating a robot. in this case - creation of a robot is more appropriate.
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2015, 03:25
egmat wrote:
TGC wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

the pronouns as usual are very confusing. I don't know how to draw a border line between unambiguous and ambiguous.

In the the article "Debunking myths" we are told that "A Pronoun should have ONE LOGICAL ANTECEDENT".

Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

In the video explanation also, it is explained that "they" has a logical antecedent "robots" and "their" has logical antecedent "researchers".

So, when we are told that there is only ONE LOGICAL ANTECEDENT for both the pronouns then from where does ambiguity comes into picture.

Plz suggest.

Hi Saurabh,
Thank you for posting your query here.

It's true that a pronoun should always have one and only one logical antecedent to be correct. However, the grammatical reference of a pronoun should also be correct. So, a pronoun must refer to the intended noun logically as well as grammatically. Let's take an official example to understand it (OG13 Q#78):

• A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers;
• the question is
o whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses
 after their horns are trimmed.

The explanation for this question in OG says that the pronoun "their" is ambiguous. Now, logically "their" can only refer to rhinoceroses, because tourists can't have horns. However, its placement makes it ambiguous. Because a pronoun placed at the beginning of a clause refers to the subject of the preceding clause (that has a noun as its subject). So, this official sentence tells us that a pronoun should have logical as well as grammatical clarity in referring to its antecedent.

Now, if we apply the same thing to the above question:

• Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots
o that can identify human facial expressions,
 to which they will then respond;
• their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

Here again, the pronoun "they" logically refers to the noun "robots". However its placement suggests that it refers to the subject of the first clause i.e. Japanese Researchers.

So, this is the reason why this reference is said to be ambiguous.

Hope this helps.
Regards,
Deepak

in A, both "they" and "their" must refer to ONE antecedent. is this right? pls, clarify. thank you
in general, both pronoun in subject case and pronoun in object case must refer to ONE noun. is that right?
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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27 May 2016, 01:57
sondenso wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
first, they is used to refer to robots. second 'them' is meant to refer to researcher but it cannot because they is used to refer to robot. SAME pronoun in same or different form cannot refer to different nouns.

(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
after semicolon there is no NOUN. the sentence after semicolon should stand on its own.

(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
take away the pronoun ambiguity.
goal is to create is correct usage.

(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
identify as well as giving - not parallel
creation noun. create is verb. choose verb over noun. (only when both the choices are grammatically correct).

(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating
GOAL is CREATING ROBOT - wrong.
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2016, 01:26
[quote="sondenso"]Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is cr

could any one help me here?
Japanese researchers are producing sth and their goal is to create?
is it ok or what?

I go with c here because other choices make no sense to me but what about the question I just asked?
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Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2016, 03:59
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Expert's post
kamranko wrote:
sondenso wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is cr

could any one help me here?
Japanese researchers are producing sth and their goal is to create?
is it ok or what?

I go with c here because other choices make no sense to me but what about the question I just asked?

The verb "are producing" and the infintive "to create" are not parts of the same parallel structure. In fact they are in two different sentences altogether (joined by a semicolon). It is not an issue that one is a verb and the other is an infinitive since they have no grammatical bearing with each other.

In order to identify parallel elements, it is a good practice to first identify the parallelism marker (such as AND, BETTER THAN, NOT ONLY, BUT ALSO etc.). Once the marker is identified, only then one should try to find the parallel elements.
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2016, 05:36
kamranko wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing sth and their goal is to create?
is it ok or what?

Hi kamranko, it might be worthwhile to note that different parts of the sentence can be in different tense; it all depends on the context.
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that   [#permalink] 05 Jul 2016, 05:36
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