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# Jones: Prehistoric wooden tools found in South America have

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Jones: Prehistoric wooden tools found in South America have [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2007, 10:38
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Jones: Prehistoric wooden tools found in South America have been dated to 13,000 years ago. Although scientists attribute these tools to peoples whose ancestors first crossed into the Americas from Siberia to Alaska, this cannot be correct. In order to have reached a site so far south, these peoples must have been migrating southward well before 13,000 years ago. However, no such tools dating to before 13,000 years ago have been found anywhere between Alaska and South America.
Smith: Your evidence is inconclusive. Those tools were found in peat bogs, which are rare in the Americas. Wooden tools in soils other than peat bogs usually decompose within only a few years.

The point at issue between Jones and Smith is

(A) whether all prehistoric tools that are 13,000 years or older were made of wood
(B) whether the scientistsâ€™ attribution of tools could be correct in light of Jonesâ€™s evidence
(C) whether the dating of the wooden tools by the scientists could be correct
(D) how long ago the peoples who crossed into the American from Siberia to Alaska first did so
(E) whether Smithâ€™s evidence entails that the wooden tools have been dated correctly

Please give reasons for ur choices...
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by abhimahna on 17 Oct 2016, 00:35, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Jones: Prehistoric wooden tools found in South America have [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2007, 17:20
Vote D.
J: No wooden tools were found in their path.
S: Wooden tools were decayed.
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Re: Jones: Prehistoric wooden tools found in South America have [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2016, 06:56
OA is B they are discussing whether the evidence that no longer exists can serve as a proof that the attribution of the scientists is correct.
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Re: Jones: Prehistoric wooden tools found in South America have [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2016, 00:21
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What is Jones' argument?

No similar wooden tools dating to before 13,000 yrs found + takes a long time to migrate from Alaska to SA --> Wooden tools found in SA did not come from people who migrated from Siberia.

However, Smith disagrees with Jones' argument.
He states that the LHS on the argument need not necessarily lead to the RHS. It is possible that such tools decayed over time and hence we can find no evidence of them.

When dealing with point at issue questions, the correct answer option raises a issue on which the speakers have opposing viewpoints.
Any answer option on which both the speakers agree/disagree or on which one of the speakers opinion is not known would be incorrect.

Let us now look at the answer options -
A - we do not know either Smith's or Jones' opinion on this issue. Also, note that the argument is concerned only with tools found in the Americas. Tools found in other continents are not relevant. Also, the argument is concerned only about tools made from wood.
The issue here is whether the wooden tools found in SA came from people who migrated from Siberia. Since, we are not sure whether those people used tools made of other materials or not, this option is irrelevant.
B - Correct answer. Smith agrees with the viewpoint presented in the option. Scientists' attribution of the tools to people from Siberia could be true, according to Smith. Jones, however, does not agree with the scientists' attribution.
C - None of them question its accuracy. Quite possibly, they both agree that the dating is correct.
D - Not the issue that is discussed. The issue discussed is the Jones' conclusion - Wooden tools found in SA did not come from people who migrated from Siberia.
This option talks about something else. Jones only states that if they did migrate from Siberia, they couldn't have migrated more than 13,000 years ago.
We do not know whether Jones agrees that people migrated to Americas from Siberia at all.
" how long ago the peoples who crossed into the American from Siberia to Alaska first did so " - this suggests that Jones agrees that people migrated from Siberia at some point. We cannot infer such a thing from the argument
E - None of them question the accuracy of dating methods used.
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Re: Jones: Prehistoric wooden tools found in South America have   [#permalink] 17 Oct 2016, 00:21
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