Kaplan CR The earliest known records of wartime : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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Kaplan CR The earliest known records of wartime

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Kaplan CR The earliest known records of wartime [#permalink]

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Kaplan CR


The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.
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Re: CR : Pigeons [#permalink]

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praetorian123 wrote:
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The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.


The passage says that carrier pigeons are still being used today IN SPITE of the availability of modern communication and often in preference to such. Hence, C is not a conclusion that makes sense. (C night be true in fact, but it is not best supported by the passage).

However, the stimulus states that pigeon are valuable when there is a need to avoid the interception of signals, which electronic systems are prone to allow. Hence, it is implied that communications via pigeons are more secure that electronic communications. It follows that A is a valid conclusion, because it stands to reason that if pigeons are more secure, they would be preferrable for transmitting classified messages.

B is too strong. Nowhere is it implied that pigeons cannot be intercepted at all.

IMO, E is tempting, but not correct because while the passage implies that there are uses for the pigeons (such as sending classified information), it does not tell us whether such use is "extensive" or "occasional".
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Although this is true, this is really stupid. Of course, ANY EVENT must necessarity predate its first written record; hence, the stuff in the passage does not add any support.

Grudgingly, though, after reading the passage, they are relating the earlier record of "war activity" and the use of carrier pigeons. I suppose that D is the only one that MUST be true based on the passage.

I hate Kaplan.
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anand--

You lost me there. Are you saying that I should explain myself? Or that I should change my answer? Or that I provided the correct answer to a stupid question?

a. The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable
electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified
military information.


There's no reason to believe that this is true in the strong form in which it is stated.

From the argument: use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

It's a little nuanced, but the argument does not state:
use of portable electronic devices, whose signals can be intercepted.

In other words, the argument does not claim that all portable electronic device signals can be intercepted. It states that some can be intercepted.
And it sates that pigeons can be "valuable". Not that they're preferable.

b. The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

Too strong of an inference, though not a terribly bad choice, IMO.

c. The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices
became practical in warfare.

We know that pigeons showed up in the earliest records. We know that they were used "extensively" in WWI and WWII. Today, they're merely "valuable" as an alternative. That seems like declining use to me.

d. Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest
known record of wartime activity.

The argument did not state this! No reason to assume this. They were used at the date of first record, but it could be (for example) that only when literacy began to become widely held that people recorded of wars, and that you can only send written messages if you know how to write...

e. Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.
We all know that this is wrong.
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Re: Kaplan CR The earliest known records of wartime [#permalink]

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Hi aakrity,

This is I agree, perhaps not the clearest question.

However, you've commited a little mistake that makes it confusing...

You have said the CONCLUSION of the passage does not relate to the answer D. However that is not the question asked.... It asks whether any of the STATEMENTS support the conclusions as given in the answer choice.

That means any of the statments in the question can be used to come to a given conclusion. In this case it is the first statement that pigeons are found in the earliest records that is crucial. Then Kaplan's OE (given above) makes sense.

I hope that helps.

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Re: Kaplan CR The earliest known records of wartime [#permalink]

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i feel the answer should be B. Argument says that the bird is still used though electronic devices,which can be intercepted,are available. Therefore pigeons have got an advantage over electronic devices,that is they cannot be intercepted.

If B is wrong then the argument falls apart .
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Re: Kaplan CR The earliest known records of wartime [#permalink]

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AbdurRakib wrote:
atuladeupes wrote:
Answer should be B, if we want to draw conclusion from the argument.
If we are looking for infrence then D
What is OA?? please share
Praetorian wrote:
Kaplan CR


The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.



Must be true,most support,best support,inference,draw conclusion can be used to ask same question.Here it is used for asking the same question

May I know how you differentiated between draw conclusion and inference question type?


Must be true and Resolve the paradox type questions, do not have a conclusion in the argument.
AbdurRakib - as pointed out by you -Must be true,most support,best support,inference,draw conclusion - many a times they can be used to ask the same question.
One can differentiate by figuring the difference in the argument and the structure of the question stem.
Must be true and Resolve the paradox type questions, do not have a conclusion in the argument.
Must be true question stem examples are:

"If the statement above are true, which of the following must be true?"
"Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the statements above"
"The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?"
"Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above"
"Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information above"

When a statement states "The statements above, if true" .. then one should assume the argument to be true to fact.
The correct answer choice should not add new information. And any choice which adds new information is incorrect.

In My opinion, this question asks us to support the argument.
The premise of the argument build the case for - "use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information".
Option D though is right with the predate theory and inference made.
Option B is a better choice - Consider this - "The messages that carrier pigeons carry can be intercepted.", then there is no point in further discussing and carrier pigeon messages or messages from portable electronic devices have equal possibility of getting intercepted.

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Kaplan CR The earliest known records of wartime [#permalink]

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Nightfury14 wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
atuladeupes wrote:
Answer should be B, if we want to draw conclusion from the argument.
If we are looking for infrence then D
What is OA?? please share



Must be true,most support,best support,inference,draw conclusion can be used to ask same question.Here it is used for asking the same question

May I know how you differentiated between draw conclusion and inference question type?


Must be true and Resolve the paradox type questions, do not have a conclusion in the argument.
AbdurRakib - as pointed out by you -Must be true,most support,best support,inference,draw conclusion - many a times they can be used to ask the same question.
One can differentiate by figuring the difference in the argument and the structure of the question stem.
Must be true and Resolve the paradox type questions, do not have a conclusion in the argument.
Must be true question stem examples are:

"If the statement above are true, which of the following must be true?"
"Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the statements above"
"The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?"
"Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above"
"Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information above"

When a statement states "The statements above, if true" .. then one should assume the argument to be true to fact.
The correct answer choice should not add new information. And any choice which adds new information is incorrect.

In My opinion, this question asks us to support the argument.
The premise of the argument build the case for - "use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information".
Option D though is right with the predate theory and inference made.
Option B is a better choice - Consider this - "The messages that carrier pigeons carry can be intercepted.", then there is no point in further discussing and carrier pigeon messages or messages from portable electronic devices have equal possibility of getting intercepted.

+1 kudos please, if the post helped.


Dear Nightfury14,


Absolutely agreed,there is no conclusion,it is a fact set stimulus ,so we have to examine each fact.

Actually my point was to identify Question type only.An must be true question may input "Conclusion" word in the question Stem because it wants you to select the conclusion from the answer choice

Additionally,


"Support" word may be used different question type:See the difference in using it to Strengthen Question and Inference question.
I think you identified it as strengthen question incorrectly.

And
this is a Must be true/inference question as below:

Please see the attachment:
Image

Please let me know if I miss any point.

Thanks
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Nightfury14 wrote:
AbdurRakib

I was answering with the explanations for the question you asked - "May I know ,how you differentiated between draw conclusion and inference question type?"

Must be true and Inference refer to the same question type.

Well, a good question and a good discussion though. :-D


Yeah,you and me have the same reasoning :-D .

Actually,I quoted by asking him how he thought these two are different for him at this question while eliminating answer choice.

Definitely we are gaining by our discussion.please keep it up.

Thanks
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New post 14 Dec 2003, 04:47
C

had to choose among A, B and C
then between B and C
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Re: CR : Pigeons [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2003, 01:42
AkamaiBrah wrote:
praetorian123 wrote:
Kaplan CR


The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.


The passage says that carrier pigeons are still being used today IN SPITE of the availability of modern communication and often in preference to such. Hence, C is not a conclusion that makes sense. (C night be true in fact, but it is not best supported by the passage).

However, the stimulus states that pigeon are valuable when there is a need to avoid the interception of signals, which electronic systems are prone to allow. Hence, it is implied that communications via pigeons are more secure that electronic communications. It follows that A is a valid conclusion, because it stands to reason that if pigeons are more secure, they would be preferrable for transmitting classified messages.

B is too strong. Nowhere is it implied that pigeons cannot be intercepted at all.

IMO, E is tempting, but not correct because while the passage implies that there are uses for the pigeons (such as sending classified information), it does not tell us whether such use is "extensive" or "occasional".



i chose A too.

The official answer given is D , with a detailed explanation.

to paraphrase kaplan,

Use of pigeons in warfare must precede the time the earliest known records were maintained. otherwise how could that event be recorded?
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New post 18 Jan 2004, 00:15
The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


a. The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable
electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified
military information.
b. The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.
c. The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices
became practical in warfare.
d. Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest
known record of wartime activity.
e. Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.
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New post 18 Jan 2004, 04:11
D? Tight fight between A and D but would go with D as it is a possibility that they were used prior to the earliest known record.
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New post 18 Jan 2004, 06:17
D is clearly stated in the opening sentence of the stimulus
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New post 18 Jan 2004, 14:57
I cant help but say this.

This is a stupid question from Kaplan. I know the answer to this question as well. Once you know the answer you will realize that it cannot be a conclusion of the argument. It can only be "inference" or "which of the following is true" question.

This should give stoolfi enough clue to change his answer of justify the answer he has chosen. I am with stoolfi on this one.
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New post 18 Jan 2004, 16:35
Your thinking is perfect. I just would like to say that your answer is wrong. IMO what you chose should be the correct answer.

Let mbamantra post the answer. I wanted to post my choice ( which is obviously wrong ). I dont want other people change thier answer after seeing my comment. That is the reason I didnt want to say anything crystal clear.
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New post 18 Jan 2004, 16:52
My guess is that B is the book answer, then.
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New post 18 Jan 2004, 18:40
the topic is extensively discussed here

http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=3686
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New post 18 Jan 2004, 21:05
I know most of you will not buy this since you already have made up your mind against D.
But, frankly speaking, I found only D closest to the stimulus..

The opening sentence says,
The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information

Obviously, when the record was written, piegons were used before that date. How can you write about the use of piegons when they are not being used in that or prior to that era ?

You can argue that it could also be imaginary...but again that is an assumption which we are not supposed to assume. Similarly, the point stoolfi brought up about literacy is also an assumption which cannot be considered.

But I agree with anandnk that this cannot be termed as a conclusion, but given the question this is the best bet. No doubt about that...

Now, dont fire me for the explanation... :)
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Re: Kaplan CR The earliest known records of wartime [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2013, 09:14
Conclusion
"Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted."

Only answer choice that can support the conclusion is that the messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted. I don't understand why D is the correct choice here?
Re: Kaplan CR The earliest known records of wartime   [#permalink] 09 Oct 2013, 09:14

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