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# Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests

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29 Aug 2011, 08:57
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Hey GMAT Club,

We know you guys are always looking for more difficult practice problems, so we dug through our question bank and found some good ones. Take a shot at this critical reasoning problem, and do your best to explain your answer choice as clearly and concisely as possible. At the end of the week, a GMAT Club moderator will choose the best answer, and the student who submitted it will receive a free Knewton t-shirt from our newly launched Knewton Store, as well as access to the GMAT Club Tests for 1 year. Good luck!

Just so you all know - we'll be announcing the winner on Tuesday (you guys get an extra day to think, thanks to the holiday weekend)! Keep the answers coming!

 ! The thread is closed for submissions. The winner will be announced on Tuesday.

A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation period of only 39 days. At this stage, the joey’s hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can can climb from the cloaca into its mother’s pouch for further development. The recent discovery that ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed supports the hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches.

The argument in this passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

[A] All animals that are born after a short gestation period are born with some parts of their bodies underdeveloped.
[B] Well developed forelimbs would have been more advantageous to ancient marsupial lions than well developed hind limbs would have been.
[C] If the newborn marsupial lion did not climb into its mother’s pouch, then paleontologists would be able to find evidence of this fact.
[D] Newborn marsupial lions that crawled into their mothers’ pouches could not have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth.
[E] Newborn marsupial lions would not have had only their forelimbs developed if this development were of no use to the marsupial lions.

Last edited by bb on 05 Sep 2011, 22:22, edited 2 times in total.
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29 Aug 2011, 21:39
ANS : D
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30 Aug 2011, 05:27
E
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Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2011, 09:24
E is the correct answer !!

The last sentence is the conclusion . : "the new born.........pounches."
A) Loser : author discusses only between kangaroo and lion but her we have "ALL"
B)Loser :False comparison.
C)Loser : Out of scope;we are not discussing about Paleontologists.
D) Loser : use of words : could ;could not :this doesn't give us certain answer
E) Correct : This is correct choice ;BY rephrasing we can see its the best
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Last edited by gmatcracker24 on 30 Aug 2011, 11:43, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2011, 11:08
option (D)
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30 Aug 2011, 12:42
D
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30 Aug 2011, 19:40
I will go with option E.
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30 Aug 2011, 20:18
IMO E
The passage says about New Born Kangaroo - "its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can can climb from the cloaca into its mother's pouch for further development."

And then tries to relate this with the Marsupial Lion, concluding that "newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers' pouches" due to the only reason that "ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed"

The necessary assumption that connects the evidence to the conclusion is that there is indeed SOME reason for newborn marsupial lions to have developed forelimbs. If there is no reason for this, then the conclusion that the reason for lions' developed forelimbs is the same as the reason for kangaroos' falls apart and this reason can't apply.

So E is correct because it states that newborn marsupial lion's have only their forelegs developed because this of use to the marsupial lions. that's is why there is a reason for the developed forelimbs. This is the assumption that the argument depends , so IMO E is correct.
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31 Aug 2011, 02:39
Evidences stated in the argument:

1. Joey is born after short gestation period
2. Joey's hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are.
3. The purpose of (2) is so it can climb into mother's pouch
4. Marsupial lions were born with only forelimbs developed

Argument implies:
"only lion's forelimbs were developed" ==> (implies) further development needed

Conclusion:
Hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must have needed to climb into mother's pouches.

A. Nothing is mentioned about the gestation period of lion; We dont know if it is short or long. So "all animals" are born after short gestation period is not valid.

B. Nothing mentioned about the usage of hind limbs vs. forelimbs of lion in premises.

C. No discussion about paleontologist in the passage.

D. That newborn lions climbed into mother's pouches is conclusion. They had forelimbs developed at birth is evidence.There is no assumption in this answer choice.

E. This connects the evidence of developed forelimbs of joey with that of lion and ties to the conclusion that lions used these forelimbs to climb into mother's pouches. The assumption here is "what is the use of developed forelimbs if not needed to climb into mother's pouch". Hence this is the correct answer.
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31 Aug 2011, 02:53
E
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31 Aug 2011, 06:09
E
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Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2011, 07:03
Hi its D

Because in D it is clearly mentioned that if the Kangarro did not develop forelimbs then it wouldn't have climb to mother's pouch....But in the paragraph it is mentioned that the kangaroo which has forelimbs developed will be able to climb to mother's pouch..

So i will go with D
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31 Aug 2011, 08:09
Premise 1. A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation period of only 39 days.

Premise 2. At this stage, the joey’s hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can can climb from the cloaca into its mother’s pouch for further development.

Premise 3. The recent discovery that ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed

Conclusion 1. The newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches

As concluded, the newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers' pouches.....no problem so far.....but why premise 3. will support conclusion 1.
Premise 3. will only support conclusion if Well developed forelimbs would have been more advantageous to ancient marsupial lions than well developed hind limbs would have been.
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Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2011, 05:29
hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches.-

- Asumptions must connect the dots between developed forelimbs at birth and the need to climb into mothers’ pouches. Now lets scan the answers one by one:

A- Way to general-use of "All". moreever some underdeveloped parts for all animals do not help us in connecting the dots!
B- It does not matter to us in the given context the advantage of developed forelimbs over developed hind. Again it does not help us to connect the equation as mentioned above.
C-Again a non consequential answer- finding evidence by paleontologists is not much of use to fill the gap in reasoning that how does developed forelimbs must have been in order to help marsupial lions to climb into their mothers’ pouches.
D- Seems all right and fills the gap in the reasoning - this shows that developed forelimbs at the time of birth was essential to the Newborn marsupial lions to crawl into their mothers’ pouches and without their developed forelimbs at birth it would not have been possible for the Newborns to crawl into their mothers’ pouches.
E-Nothing wrong with this answer, infact second best answer. D is better than E, because E is too general in emphasizing the use of developed forelimbs at birth. We are not discussing about "any use" but whether developed forelimbs -> requirement of crawling into mother's pouches!

Retrospecting all the above choices- A, B, and C were not at all addressing the issue at hand. It was a close call between D and E, but since D gives specific use of developed forelimbs: I would pick D over E.

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01 Sep 2011, 09:35
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01 Sep 2011, 10:04
The answer is a close call between B and E. But i will go with asnwer choice E. The premise for the conclusion is that at birth the lions had developed forelimbs just as the kangaroo had at birth. So the lions must also use the forelimbs to climb into their mother's pouches. The argument assumes that it cannot be possible for the forelimbs to be developed at birth of lions for no valid reason. It is very much possible that the development could have taken place for no reason at all. Therefore, the argument rests on this assumption.
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01 Sep 2011, 10:06
I would go with option E

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01 Sep 2011, 10:31
Answr is D
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01 Sep 2011, 11:09

Explanation: The conclusion is that the marsupial lions must have needed to climb their mother's pouch. Lets consider the choices one by one:
(A) For ancient marsupial lions, firstly, it is nowhere mentioned in the argument that they were born after a short gestation period. May be they were born with only fore limbs developed even after a long gestation period. Secondly, we don't need to assume that they were born with some parts underdeveloped as this is mentioned in the argument itself.
(B) Well developed forelimbs could well have been more advantageous than hind limbs to marsupial lions but for what purpose? May be for running but not necessarily for climbing their mother's pouch. Even if we assume that fore limbs were more advantageous, we cannot say that they were more advantageous for the purpose of climbing.
(C) It is clearly mentioned in the argument that it is an hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches. Paleontologists have no way to determine whether the marsupial lions actually did so or not.
(D) Lets assume that marsupial lions were born with their fore limbs AND hind limbs developed. Logically speaking, they must have been equally capable, if not more, of climbing their mother's pouch. But in the argument, the conclusion is based upon the development of ONLY the front limbs. So to reach the conclusion based upon the development of ONLY the front limbs, it is imperative to assume that the development of hind limbs must have reduced the capability of marsupial lions to climb into their mother's pouch.
(E) Again, the development of only the forelimbs could have been due to some purpose use but simply assuming this is not enough to conclude that the purpose was to climb into their mother's pouch.

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01 Sep 2011, 11:22
If the newborn marsupial lion did not climb into its mother’s pouch, then paleontologists would be able to find evidence of this fact.since there is no evidence of this fact,the new discovery supports the theory, that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches.
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Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests   [#permalink] 01 Sep 2011, 11:22

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# Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests

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