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# Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than

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Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2012, 21:40
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Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40% longer than usual when fed a diet of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

A) of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise

B) with at least 30% fewer calories than what they would normally eat though otherwise it

C) that has at least 30% fewer of the calories than they would normally eat, but otherwise it

D) that has at least 30% fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise

E) that has at least 30% fewer calories than that which they normally eat, though that otherwise

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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12 Apr 2012, 13:57
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Hi,

Let me see if I can clear up any ambiguity

Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than usual when fed a diet of at least 30 percent fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

(A) of at least 30 percent fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise

Typically 'diet of' is used to describe a specific food, 'a diet of bread and water.'

(B) with at least 30 percent fewer calories than what they would normally eat though otherwise it

What does the 'it' refer to. Also you want not use 'with' to describe the diet, but would instead use the relative pronoun 'that' to connect 'diet' to the relative clause.

(C) that has at least 30 percent fewer of the calories that they would normally eat, but otherwise it

Here the 'diet' is being compared to 'calories.'

(D) that has at least 30 percent fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise

We need the use of 'that' after 'calories' to show that we are comparing 'diet of 30%...' to 'a diet they normally eat.' We use 'that' to take the place of 'diet.'

(E) that has at least 30 percent fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, though that otherwise

CORRECT: Here we are correctly comparing 'diet that has at least 30 percent fewer...' to 'that (diet) which they normally...'
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11 Apr 2012, 06:49
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But isnt it wrong to say ......'calories than they'???? isnt tht comparing calories with 'they'-the rats??
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17 Apr 2012, 11:28
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hellscream wrote:
ChrisLele wrote:
Hi,

Let me see if I can clear up any ambiguity

Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than usual when fed a diet of at least 30 percent fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

(A) of at least 30 percent fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise

Typically 'diet of' is used to describe a specific food, 'a diet of bread and water.'

(B) with at least 30 percent fewer calories than what they would normally eat though otherwise it

What does the 'it' refer to. Also you want not use 'with' to describe the diet, but would instead use the relative pronoun 'that' to connect 'diet' to the relative clause.

(C) that has at least 30 percent fewer of the calories that they would normally eat, but otherwise it

Here the 'diet' is being compared to 'calories.'

(D) that has at least 30 percent fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise

We need the use of 'that' after 'calories' to show that we are comparing 'diet of 30%...' to 'a diet they normally eat.' We use 'that' to take the place of 'diet.'

(E) that has at least 30 percent fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, though that otherwise

CORRECT: Here we are correctly comparing 'diet that has at least 30 percent fewer...' to 'that (diet) which they normally...'

Thank you, I got the idea now .

Correct answer is D, its from gmat prep . 2 problems with E - though does not convey intended meaning & 'than that which they' should be 'than that they'
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Re: Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2012, 22:57
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the simplest way to attack E is, on GMAT, "which" cannot be used without a COMMA. That's enf to ding answer choice E!

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Laboratory rats and mice live upto 40% longer than usual [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2012, 01:29
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Laboratory rats and mice live upto 40% longer than usual when fed a diet of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

a)of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise

b) with at least 30% fewer calories than what they would normally eat though otheriwse it

c) that has at least 30% fewer of the calories than they would normally eat, but otherwise it

d) that has at least 30% fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise

e) that has at least 30% fewer calories than that which they normally eat, though that otherise

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

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Re: Laboratory rats and mice live upto 40% longer than usual [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2012, 12:39
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Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40% longer than usual when fed a diet of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

a)of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise

'A diet of X' implies that X is the actual thing being consumed. Rats can be fed a diet of insects, worms, etc. But I can hardly imagine a rat feasting on a delectable meal of 30% fewer calories.

b) with at least 30% fewer calories than what they would normally eat though otheriwse it

The 'it' is not necessary. To test this simply omit the 'it' and notice how the verb 'contains' unambiguously refers to diet.

c) that has at least 30% fewer of the calories than they would normally eat, but otherwise it

The same problem as (B).

d) that has at least 30% fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise

'They' clearly refers to 'rats'. The 'but' sets up the necessary contrast. And there is no unnecessary 'it'. Therefore, (D) is the answer.

e) that has at least 30% fewer calories than that which they normally eat, though that otherwise

(E), like (A), implies that the rat is eating the 'diet'. Notice how 'that' refers to a diet - "than (the diet) they would normally eat."
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Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2016, 06:10
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GMATDemiGod wrote:
hey guys

I have a question about construction of "that which they" or "that which"

Is this construction fine to use?

Has there been any correct GMAT questions that have that and which next to each other? This structure seems a bit odd to me.

Thanks

1. Here "that" is a relative pronoun that creates a copy of a noun previously used (diet).

2. Then the relative pronoun "which" creates a clause ("which they would normally eat) that modifies that copy ( i.e. the relative pronoun "that"). This relative pronoun "which" is again the object of the clause modifier. Thus the complete construction becomes:

".. that which they would normally eat..."

The above construction is awkward since the above two functions can be more concisely carried out using one single relative clause starting with "that". The usage would then be "....that they would normally eat...".

This correct construction is used in option D, but there even the relative pronoun "that" is omitted because by virtue of parelleism it is allowed to drop repeated word(s) from the second element of two parallel items being compared, if the meaning is not obscured. Hence the final construction becomes:
"....that they would normally eat..." ("that", i.e. "diet" has already been used in the first item in the comparison structure and is therefore dropped).
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04 Sep 2016, 01:32
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Mariwa wrote:
Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40% longer than usual when fed a diet of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.
Why is A wrong?
Aren't they comparing two diets? In that case "than that" is required.
Am I wrong?

Option A:
Two relative pronouns ("that which") one after the other is awkward (though grammatically not incorrect).
"diet of 30% ..." is awkward - "diet of..." is generally used to specify particular foods - e.g., "diet of non-vegetarian foods", "diet of curd-rice" etc.

Option D:
Yes, ideally "than that" is to be used. However as has been frequently observed, GMAT allows omission of repeated words form the second element of a parallel structure.

The following post is more detailed:
laboratory-rats-and-mice-live-up-to-40-percent-longer-than-130331-20.html#p1703220
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Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2016, 08:07
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mejia401 wrote:
sanghar wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k

Wanted to clarify one point - the omitted relative pronoun after "than" in the corrected sentence shouldn't be "that", but should be "those" as it is supposed to be referring to "calories", in keeping with the meaning? I have indicated this below:-

Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40% longer than usual when fed a diet that has at least 30% fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40% longer than usual when fed a diet that has at least 30% fewer calories than those (the calories) they would normally eat but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

The antecedent of "that" is a diet, and the diet is the direct object of the phrase "they would normally eat." This construction is impressively confusing. I never thought you could remove a direct object but indeed, if the meaning remains intact, there ought to be no issue at all.

sanghar 's point is also correct - the pronoun should be "those" since it refers to "calories". The comparison apparently becomes faulty otherwise. (Why I used "apparently" is discussed later in this post)

Wrong (apparently): The diet has 30% less calories than that (the diet) they would normally eat. (apparently wrong comparison "diet" with "calories")
Correct: The diet has 30% less calories than those (the calories) they would normally eat. (correct comparison "calories" with "calories").

Now, why I used "apparently" above:
Alternatively "diet" could be used in a different way to maintain parallelism:
The diet has 30% less calories than HAS that (the diet) they would normally eat.
But again by virtue of parallelism "has" can be omitted.
The diet has 30% less calories than has that (the diet) they would normally eat.

So, "that" and "those" both are correct, but the construction of the sentence changes (and since the construction is omitted it does not matter whether "that" or "those" is used).
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Re: Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2016, 08:21
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sayantanc2k wrote:
mejia401 wrote:
sanghar wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k

Wanted to clarify one point - the omitted relative pronoun after "than" in the corrected sentence shouldn't be "that", but should be "those" as it is supposed to be referring to "calories", in keeping with the meaning? I have indicated this below:-

Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40% longer than usual when fed a diet that has at least 30% fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40% longer than usual when fed a diet that has at least 30% fewer calories than those (the calories) they would normally eat but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

The antecedent of "that" is a diet, and the diet is the direct object of the phrase "they would normally eat." This construction is impressively confusing. I never thought you could remove a direct object but indeed, if the meaning remains intact, there ought to be no issue at all.

sanghar 's point is also correct - the pronoun should be "those" since it refers to "calories". The comparison apparently becomes faulty otherwise. (Why I used "apparently" is discussed later in this post)

Wrong (apparently): The diet has 30% less calories than that (the diet) they would normally eat. (apparently wrong comparison "diet" with "calories")
Correct: The diet has 30% less calories than those (the calories) they would normally eat. (correct comparison "calories" with "calories").

Now, why I used "apparently" above:
Alternatively "diet" could be used in a different way to maintain parallelism:
The diet has 30% less calories than HAS that (the diet) they would normally eat.
But again by virtue of parallelism "has" can be omitted.
The diet has 30% less calories than has that (the diet) they would normally eat.

So, "that" and "those" both are correct, but the construction of the sentence changes (and since the construction is omitted it does not matter whether "that" or "those" is used).

Thanks for clarifying sayantanc2k
Interesting to see how both can actually be used. Good stuff!
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11 Apr 2012, 02:20
I choose D for the sake of parallelism. diet that.... but that
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12 Apr 2012, 08:28
But isnt it wrong to say ......'calories than they'???? isnt tht comparing calories with 'they'-the rats??

I think this should be "calories than what they..."
They refer to rats and mice.
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19 Apr 2012, 20:15
ChrisLele wrote:
Hi,

Let me see if I can clear up any ambiguity

Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than usual when fed a diet of at least 30 percent fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

(A) of at least 30 percent fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise

Typically 'diet of' is used to describe a specific food, 'a diet of bread and water.'

(B) with at least 30 percent fewer calories than what they would normally eat though otherwise it

What does the 'it' refer to. Also you want not use 'with' to describe the diet, but would instead use the relative pronoun 'that' to connect 'diet' to the relative clause.

(C) that has at least 30 percent fewer of the calories that they would normally eat, but otherwise it

Here the 'diet' is being compared to 'calories.'

(D) that has at least 30 percent fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise

We need the use of 'that' after 'calories' to show that we are comparing 'diet of 30%...' to 'a diet they normally eat.' We use 'that' to take the place of 'diet.'

(E) that has at least 30 percent fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, though that otherwise

CORRECT: Here we are correctly comparing 'diet that has at least 30 percent fewer...' to 'that (diet) which they normally...'

My reasoning matches EXACTLY with ur's ....but this is a GMATPrep question and correct answer is D
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Re: Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2012, 11:44
The Answer is D. The sentence tries to bring out the nature of the diet that the rats are eating.. The sentence says that the diet contains less calories, BUT (contains all the necessary vitamins and nutrients). This goes to show that the calorie content, does not affect the nutrition value of the food the rats are eating. ' THOUGH' in (E) is the wrong word.

Hope this helps....
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Re: Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2012, 20:43
there are two things to keep parallel: the two qualities of the diet (calories and vitamins & minerals) and a comparison within that first quality (the number of calories). If we put the sentence together using choice D:

Laboratory rats and mice live up to 40 percent longer than usual when fed a diet that has at least 30 percent fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

We have:

a diet (that has...) but (that...contains...), which is parallel.

And:

a diet that has (at least 30 percent...fewer than...they would normally eat), which correctly compares the calories of the previous diet to the calories of the current diet.

The problem with "than that which" in Choice A is that it ruins the comparison: "a diet of at least 30 percent fewer calories than that which they would normally eat." Using "that which" refers back to "a diet" when we should use "fewer than" as in D.
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Re: Laboratory rats and mice [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2012, 10:10
Marcab wrote:
Laboratory rats and mice live upto 40% longer than usual when fed a diet of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise contains all necessary vitamins and nutrients.

a)of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise

b) with at least 30% fewer calories than what they would normally eat though otheriwse it

c) that has at least 30% fewer of the calories than they would normally eat, but otherwise it

d) that has at least 30% fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise

e) that has at least 30% fewer calories than that which they normally eat, though that otherise

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
After discussion

Ohh this is good 1 ...

a)of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise
- Cant use which without a comma or a preposition - eliminate

c) that has at least 30% fewer of the calories than they would normally eat, but otherwise it
- "30% fewer of the calories" is awkward. "30% fewer calories" would be sufficient.
I think there a comparison issue as well -> calories is compared with Mice and rats.

e) that has at least 30% fewer calories than that which they normally eat, though that otherise
- Cant use which without a comma or a preposition - eliminate

Between B and D

d) that has at least 30% fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise
I guess we have comparison error here. But I really like the parallelism.

b) with at least 30% fewer calories than what they would normally eat though otheriwse it
comparison is OK and it has no other referent other than DIET....

What's the OA and Source sir?

Cheers
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Re: Laboratory rats and mice [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2012, 10:19
I will post the OA soon.
Need not worry JP but yeah the source is Question Pack 1 from GMAC
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Re: Laboratory rats and mice [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2012, 17:34
a)of at least 30% fewer calories than that which they would normally eat, but that otherwise
"That which" refers to the diet, whereas we're comparing the # of calories
b) with at least 30% fewer calories than what they would normally eat though otheriwse it
"diet with" is not a correct idiom. "What" seems unnecessary, too.
c) that has at least 30% fewer of the calories than they would normally eat, but otherwise it
Wrongly compares calories with "they" (mice).
d) that has at least 30% fewer calories than they would normally eat but that otherwise
1) ...."that"... "that" is in parallel
2) There is only one antecedent to "they". Although "calories" is closer, it doesn't make sense for "calories" to refer to "they".

e) that has at least 30% fewer calories than that which they normally eat, though that otherise
- just for fun, this one's solely wrong because "otherise" is misspelled
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Re: Laboratory rats and mice [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2012, 19:42
crazypriya wrote:
IMO D

But a little doubtful between A and D.

Please do maintain the decorum of the verbal community by giving explanations.
Whats the doubt with A?
Check the items that are being compared.
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Re: Laboratory rats and mice   [#permalink] 11 Dec 2012, 19:42

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