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Landfills, which store much of this country's garbage, still

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Landfills, which store much of this country's garbage, still [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2004, 01:00
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Landfills, which store much of this country's garbage, still face significant lead-pollution risks. Discarded products such as old electronics are supposed to be tested for lead content. Objects with a high lead content are supposed to be treated as hazardous waste and discarded in locations other than landfills. However, one of the most common tests used to detect lead in discarded products frequently misses high lead concentrations.
Which of the following best describes the role of the bolded statement in the above passage?


A. It is the conclusion of an argument.
B. It is an objection to the argument's conclusion.
C. It is a statement that qualifies the evidence provided.
D. It is a fact in support of an argument.
E. It is an explanation that clarifies the argument's conclusion
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 [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2004, 01:58
C for me - I will explain if correct.

venksune, do you have the OA to the BF/CR question you posted on the 4th of december?
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 [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2004, 02:18
It's a good one, i will go with D.
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 [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2004, 06:20
Here,

Fact is "Landfills, which store much of this country's garbage, still face significant lead-pollution risks."

Author's View: "Discarded products such as old electronics are supposed to be tested for lead content. Objects with a high lead content are supposed to be treated as hazardous waste and discarded in locations other than landfills."

Explaination to the fact "However, one of the most common tests used to detect lead in discarded products frequently misses high lead concentrations."


So we have left with the choice of 'C' and 'E'.

And 'C' seems more correct. I will go with 'C'.
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 [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2004, 06:21
Here,

Fact is "Landfills, which store much of this country's garbage, still face significant lead-pollution risks."

Author's View: "Discarded products such as old electronics are supposed to be tested for lead content. Objects with a high lead content are supposed to be treated as hazardous waste and discarded in locations other than landfills."

Explaination to the fact "However, one of the most common tests used to detect lead in discarded products frequently misses high lead concentrations."


So we have left with the choice of 'C' and 'E'.

And 'C' seems more correct. I will go with 'C'.
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 [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2004, 06:47
Will pick E.

The boldface is the premise for author's conclusion that landfills still face significant lead-pollution risks.
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 [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2004, 08:16
Just to explain my reasoning

Conclusion: Landfills, which store much of this country's garbage, still face significant lead-pollution risks --> Conclusion says that lead content is high in landfills

Evidence: Discarded products such as old electronics are supposed to be tested for lead content. Objects with a high lead content are supposed to be treated as hazardous waste and discarded in locations other than landfills --> Evidence says that lead pollution should be low in landfills

The second BF links the evidence and conclusion together by saying that despite the evidence which leads to lower lead landfills, we still must conclude that lead content in landfills is high because of the high lead tests failures.
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 [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2004, 10:08
Paul wrote:
Just to explain my reasoning

Conclusion: Landfills, which store much of this country's garbage, still face significant lead-pollution risks --> Conclusion says that lead content is high in landfills

Evidence: Discarded products such as old electronics are supposed to be tested for lead content. Objects with a high lead content are supposed to be treated as hazardous waste and discarded in locations other than landfills --> Evidence says that lead pollution should be low in landfills

The second BF links the evidence and conclusion together by saying that despite the evidence which leads to lower lead landfills, we still must conclude that lead content in landfills is high because of the high lead tests failures.


I agree the ans should be E as it does clarify the conclusion that Landfills still face lead pollution risks.
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 [#permalink] New post 06 Dec 2004, 06:58
E was my choice too. BUT the OA is D. I will agree. It does look good after you know that D is the OA.

The OE is:
The argument begins with an assertion that landfills continue to face a lead-pollution risk. The rest of the passage explains why: Certain refuse is supposed to be tested, and objects containing high lead counts are to be brought to special sites instead of landfills. But as the bolded sentence indicates, detection tests are not always accurate. This lends support to the initial assertion, which means that the first sentence is the argument’s conclusion, while the fact in the final sentence is evidence for it. This rules out choice (A), which confuses the argument’s main piece of evidence for its conclusion, and choice (B), which mistakenly asserts that the bolded supporting statement opposes the conclusion. Choice (C) is incorrect because the bolded statement represents the argument’s main piece of evidence, not something that softens or tempers the other statements in the passage. As for choice (E), the bolded statement does not explain what the conclusion means; it tells us why it is so.
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 [#permalink] New post 06 Dec 2004, 07:08
Venksune,

I couldnt follow the OE.. could you please elucidate in your own words?
Im confused between D and E now.
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 [#permalink] New post 06 Dec 2004, 08:03
venksune wrote:
This lends support to the initial assertion, which means that the first sentence is the argument’s conclusion, while the fact in the final sentence is evidence for it.


Does the bolded portion not say that the first sentence is the conclusion and not the argument itself? Thus, the OE would support E as answer...
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 [#permalink] New post 06 Dec 2004, 08:51
D makes sense in the hind sight : :cry:

look at it this way
still face significant lead-pollution risks is the arguement

Bolded statement explain why testing failed to detect the lead. Hence it supports the arguement. Good question. Thanks for posting Venksune.
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 [#permalink] New post 06 Dec 2004, 09:23
praveen_rao7 wrote:
D makes sense in the hind sight : :cry:

look at it this way
still face significant lead-pollution risks is the arguement

Bolded statement explain why testing failed to detect the lead. Hence it supports the arguement. Good question. Thanks for posting Venksune.


Thanks Praveen. This makes sense. If I think that the first sentence is the conclusion( as I thought and provided by the OE), then Choice E is the answer, which is wrong. Have to think that the first sentence is an arguement.
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 [#permalink] New post 06 Dec 2004, 10:59
D makes a lot of sense now. E seems redundant now!
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BOLD FACE APPROACH - HELP NEEDED [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2005, 10:00
has anyone got a sure way of approaching BOLD FACE QUESTION that doesnt involve taking each sentence apart and applying the rule as below

evidence- consideration - assumption - counterevidence - premise

In my humble opinion I see no difference between the above terms ....surely that all mean the same thing ????
Enlightened educated comments most welcome on this issue - thankyou
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 [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2005, 10:07
I agree with you that it is most confusing, at least for me too. And I would like to see some enlightened educated comments on this as well.

What I can say a little bit, is that an "evidence" seems to be different from an "assumption". Evidences most of the time are facts that are presented in the passage.

Paul had some very good definitions for some of these terms too in this thread: http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=13782.
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 [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2005, 13:50
I picked E. I guess everybody is wrong and nobody actually got the OA (D). Bothers me a lot a that I still cannot figure out!
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 [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2005, 20:59
Actually foraj picked (D). And I somehow missed this question. But I agree that (D) makes sense.

"clarify" means to explain something that was unclear before. The bold face sentence didn't do that. It simply provided a fact in support of the conclusion.
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 [#permalink] New post 06 Feb 2005, 09:06
Hello, guys

these are too similar.

Do you think it will appear in the real test?

After seeing the OA or OE, we always try to pursuade ourselves to accept the OA or OE. But in fact, before you see the OA, I think this is too similar to make decision. I don't think it will appear in the real test.
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 [#permalink] New post 06 Feb 2005, 09:43
If you are doing well in Verbal there is a good chance that you will get a BF. In fact some people guage the way they are doing in Verbal by whether they get a BF question or not.

In this BF question, I thought that three choices were too close. Not sure what the source of the question was.
  [#permalink] 06 Feb 2005, 09:43
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