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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services

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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 19 Sep 2004, 04:52
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Last edited by doe007 on 17 Apr 2013, 19:43, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services [#permalink] New post 07 Jan 2012, 21:45
Can someone explain why not B?
Does financial aspect here doesn't matter.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2012, 13:07
kat1983 wrote:
Can someone explain why not B?
Does financial aspect here doesn't matter.


In this case, the financial aspect is not relevant because we want to know if the city's program will reduce the total amount of ash.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2012, 20:43
Someone cannot distinguish the different issue in choice D and E. This one is a kind of assumption. Here my explanation

perfectstranger wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

REMEMBER, THE CONCLUSION:In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total

PREMISE: Separate for recycling enough refuse

=> SUB CONCLUSION: To reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.


Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

WITH THE ASSUMPTION QUESTION, WE WILL USE THE NEGATE TECHNIQUE


(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate MORE residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year. => the CONCLUSION above is broken.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be GREATER than that collected last year. => the quantity of refuse still large, but larger. See again the argument. Will this fact affect the amount of ash that the incinerated refuse generate, won't it? We do not know. So, this is not the correct one.

Please explain in a detailed reasoning.Nice explanation will be appreciated with kudos :)) . OA after explanations.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services [#permalink] New post 09 Oct 2012, 19:50
perfectstranger wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.


I am not convinced with the answer. The question is asking to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated i.e. before incineration where as the answer talks about ash after incineration.

Please help.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services [#permalink] New post 28 Oct 2012, 02:37
kat1983 wrote:
Can someone explain why not B?
Does financial aspect here doesn't matter.

As you do with most of the assumption questions, you have to state the unstated. So that it helps you in deriving conclusion.

(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
This may be true but this doesn't help us to conclude that action will reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.
So B is dead. :-D
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services [#permalink] New post 28 Oct 2012, 11:42
melguy wrote:
perfectstranger wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.


I am not convinced with the answer. The question is asking to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated i.e. before incineration where as the answer talks about ash after incineration.

Please help.



Its D.. negate it u l get the ans..negate every choice..!! D and E luks GUD..bt after negating D destroy the conclusion
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services [#permalink] New post 28 Oct 2012, 16:24
Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.

Its total out of scope no where its stated int the argument about the cost factor...we hav to achieve the aim, which about reducing the amount of residual not about reducing the cost,,,,, how can we assume about cost
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 02 Nov 2012, 22:40
How do you know it's an assumption "TYPE" question? Can you explain the logic here?

Thank you in advance.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2012, 23:15
Given : Shelbyville want to reduce the ash generated to half compared to that generated last year. Hence the city revamped the collection program where the refuse will be separated for recycling there by reducing the number of truck loads of refuse to half of last year’s number.
To achieve the aim, either the total number of trucks load of refuse remains same and after recycling would have less number of trucks load of refuse than was last year. Or have same number of trucks load of refuse after recycling.

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated. – The revamped program clearly states that it would separate the materials for recycling and burn the rest of the refuse - Incorrect
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash. – Cost incurred to the city is out of scope - Incorrect
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year. – No information on removal of recyclable materials from the refuse last is provided in the premise - Incorrect
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year. – If a truck load of refuse when burned generate less than or equal to the ash generated by burning a truck load of refuse last year, the program will be successful because the city already has a program in place to reduce the total number of trucks load of refuse to half compared to last year. - Correct
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city services this year will be no greater than that collected last year. – Lets assume that refuse collected this is same as that collected last year and no recyclable materials could be removed from the refuse. Then the ash produced by burning the refuse will be same. Mission unaccomplished - Incorrect
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services [#permalink] New post 16 Feb 2013, 02:37
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Can someone please explain C vs D Vs E
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services [#permalink] New post 16 Feb 2013, 03:25
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Can someone please explain C vs D Vs E


Hi ratinarace,

First, lets determine the question type. The answer choice has to be true for the conclusion to be true i.e. it is an assumption question.

Conclusion is that Shelbyville city service will achieve its aim.

In simple words the stimulus says that last year the incinerator produced a lot of residual ash. This year they want to reduce the residual ash by cutting to half the the refuse sent to the incinerator.

In more simpler words the author is assuming: reduction in refuse to half = reduction in residual ash to half .

If an answer choice states this assumption, we've got the answer. Even if you have not got this assumption initially you can run through the answer choices and check which one would make the conclusion/ aim true for sure.

(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.


Does this has to be true for the conclusion to be true. If recyclable material is high then the incinerated material will be low, but it could still generate more ash per unit of refuse. So, it is not mandatory for (C) to be true for conclusion to be true.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

Does this has to be true for the conclusion to be true. Yes, lets see why;

the amount of ash per unit refuse is less than or equal to the amount of as per unit last year. Therefore, the incinerator would generate less than or equal to the amount of residual ash produced last year. This has to be true for the conclusion to be true. So, it is our answer.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.


This need not be true for the conclusion to be true. The quantity of refuse could be the same or greater but the proportion of waste that is incinerated be less than what it was last year. The Shelbyville city service could still achieve its aim without (E) being true.

Hope that helps,

Vercules
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2013, 07:08
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Need explanation
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 06 Mar 2013, 09:26
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 19:37
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 09 Jul 2013, 08:14
Shelbyville can achieve this aim anyway, by simply burning half of the refuse and leave behind rest of the refuse.
But they can best achieve this if refuse has 50% of recyclable material and 50% of non recyclable material.
(Argument leaves this assumption that refuse generated this year and last year in qty is same, ash production will be the same, bcz it simply saying that this aim is achievable by just reducing the amount of truck load to half this year than last year)
Thus this aim is best achievable if refuse contains high proportion of recyclable refuse compared to last year.

If D is the case than this year"s ash qty should be even less than half, bcz argument is clearly saying that "the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year"s number" but the aim of the argument is to achieve only half... argument is not saying less than half.

I think C is best, lets assume if we get 30% refuse as recyclable compared to last year"s 20% then out of remaining 70% refuse Shelbyville can burn refuse 50% of the last years truck load, if this amount is same as this year than we will left with 20% of no burned refuse. which i think still helping Shelbyville to achieve its aim of half of the refuse in best possible way.

Further if we get recyclable material more than 50%, still can achieve this aim by allowing above 50% recyclable material to get incarcerated to achieve aim of half of the recyclable material.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 09 Jul 2013, 09:16
Hi Piyush,

I don't quite follow your argument, but I think that might just be me struglling with your abbreviations.

If I get you right, you're sort of misunderstanding the question.

To get D over C (which is 100% correct -see all prev posts) it's about working out what is necessarily true.

I quote the oracle Vercules on why C does not have to be true:

Does this has to be true for the conclusion to be true. If recyclable material is high then the incinerated material will be low, but it could still generate more ash per unit of refuse. So, it is not mandatory for (C) to be true for conclusion to be true.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 10 Jul 2013, 22:47
Hi Plumber250,

Thanks for the reply, later I managed to evaluate why C is right.
But this question really needs deep thinking and interpretation.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 09 Aug 2013, 09:52
Hi ,

Please help me here.

I am not able to get why choice D is the correct answer. I was completely stumped.

Below is my analysis.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.

Initial thought:
Completely lost among most of the choices and chose this just for the sake of choosing an answer since I had already taken about 4 mins.

Later evaluation.

This choice says no materials will be incinerated. The target is not to completely avoid incineration. Only portion of it is to be recycled. This is not the requirement / Assumption clearly.

(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.

OFS. Cost is not the concern.

(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.

The proportion of recyclable material to refuse is relevant but not the proportion of the recyclable materials between the two years.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

Initial thought: I thought the Ash per truck load is not relevant since we care about the number of truck loads of refuse to be burnt.

Later revleation.

This is the correct answer. However, is a truck load of refuse to be burnt equal to truck load of ash? I am not able to understand this properly.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

The total quantity is not relevant. OFS. We are concerned with the number of truck loads of trash.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 09 Aug 2013, 19:53
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pavan2185 wrote:
Hi ,

Please help me here.

I am not able to get why choice D is the correct answer. I was completely stumped.

Below is my analysis.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.

Initial thought:
Completely lost among most of the choices and chose this just for the sake of choosing an answer since I had already taken about 4 mins.

Later evaluation.

This choice says no materials will be incinerated. The target is not to completely avoid incineration. Only portion of it is to be recycled. This is not the requirement / Assumption clearly.

(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.

OFS. Cost is not the concern.

(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.

The proportion of recyclable material to refuse is relevant but not the proportion of the recyclable materials between the two years.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

Initial thought: I thought the Ash per truck load is not relevant since we care about the number of truck loads of refuse to be burnt.

Later revleation.

This is the correct answer. However, is a truck load of refuse to be burnt equal to truck load of ash? I am not able to understand this properly.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

The total quantity is not relevant. OFS. We are concerned with the number of truck loads of trash.


Hi Pavan,

Let me explain option D with an analogy here.

Let's suppose if a doctor makes the following suggestion to you.

You need to reduce your calorie intake to half the current levels. Therefore, you should eat half as much as you currently eat. (so if you eat say 20 units, now you should eat 10 units)

Now, for the doctor's suggestion to work (i.e. reduce calorie intake to half the current levels), you should not eat, say, oily foods which contain more calories per unit. If you do that, even though you may eat only 10 units of food but your actual calorie intake will not be half of your previous level since you are eating more oily foods now which are providing you more calories per unit.

Therefore, for doctor's suggestion to achieve its aim (reduce calorie intake to half), the amount of calories per unit of food should not increase from last year.

Do you get this?

Exactly parallel is the reasoning used in option D.

You want to reduce residual ash to half the amount. What you do is that you reduce the number of trucks to half. Would that achieve the objective.

The answer is yes but only if you don't load each truck with more residual ash than the year before.

Does this help?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink] New post 09 Aug 2013, 23:23
E is as good an answer.

Is not E be required to achieve the aim?
I think E fits in correctly.
Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services   [#permalink] 09 Aug 2013, 23:23
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services

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