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Learn how That can help you demystify a long sentence

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Re: Learn how That can help you demystify a long sentence [#permalink] New post 25 Mar 2013, 10:16
Expert's post
debayan222 wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
Hi Shradhha,
For the sentence in your article "Mary found certain evidence that even the Crime Scene Investigators (CSI) could not find." 'that' is a connector for sure.

But,had the sentence been "Mary found certain evidence that even could not be found by the Crime Scene Investigators (CSI)." then I think 'that' is modifying the noun 'evidence' through the purple clause and is the subject of the purple clause as per "Usage 1" mentioned in this article.

Please share your feedback on this.


Hi Shradhha,
I'm awaiting you feedback on the above...! :)

Much appreciate your response.


Hi Debayan,

Yes, you are absolutely correct.

Mary found certain evidence that even could not be found by the Crime Scene Investigators (CSI).

In this sentence, "that" is a relative pronoun as it modifies "clues" in the preceding IC.

Thanks. :)
Shraddha
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Re: Learn how That can help you demystify a long sentence [#permalink] New post 25 Mar 2013, 21:47
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This is great. Will be keen to know the other uses or "that".....relevant to GMAT
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Re: Learn how That can help you demystify a long sentence [#permalink] New post 05 Apr 2013, 06:21
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1-
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.
Clauses are mentioned below with the subjects in bold and verb in red color
Clause-1-
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists,
declaring that -> appear that it modifies the previous clause
Clause-2-
since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
clause-3-
none could be taken seriously.
Problems: Clause 1 is missing the verb for the subject two Swiss psychologists.
Clause 2 can be expressed into simple present tense, as it states the fact that is still true in present.
Correction: Clause-1- Comma can be taken off and verb could be ‘declare’ or ‘have declared’.
Clause-2- it can be expressed into simple present tense.
Corrected sentence:
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to 1940s, two Swiss psychologists have declared that since most of the studies have failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

2-
In 1713, Alexander Pope began his translation of the Iliad, a work that, taking him seven years until completion, and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced the greatest translation in any language.
Clause 1: In 1713, Alexander Pope began his translation of the Iliad, a work (noun + noun modifier- that would start with that)
Clause 2: that, taking him seven years until completion, and <- no verb, should be had taken
Clause 3: that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced the greatest translation in any language.

Corrected Sentence:
In 1713, Alexander Pope began his translation of the Iliad, a work that had taken him seven years to complete, and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, has pronounced the greatest translation in any language.

-------------------------------
Dear club mates,
I need your help for the above mentioned sentences:
1- Verb sequencing seems missing. As per standard rule: The general fact should be mentioned into present tense. ?
2- As per MGMT Sentence Correction Guide, we can use past perfect tense to express the later events if the former event is into past tense and the time frame is also mentioned. In example -2 the time frame of 7 years has been mentioned, so why this has not been expressed into past perfect tense?
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Re: Learn how That can help you demystify a long sentence [#permalink] New post 09 Apr 2013, 13:31
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Can you please explain the use of THAT in this sentence. I am confused.

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
a)persisting
b)persists
c)persisted
d)they persisted
e)are persisting


The OA is A.
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Re: Learn how That can help you demystify a long sentence [#permalink] New post 10 Apr 2013, 15:17
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maaadhu wrote:
Can you please explain the use of THAT in this sentence. I am confused.

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
a)persisting
b)persists
c)persisted
d)they persisted
e)are persisting


The OA is A.


IMO A is the correct answer.
Here is my analysis: Breaking the sentence to understand the modifiers:
Astronomers have theorized X
X= that {that1} the Big Bang governs Y
Y= the behavior of interstellar dust, particles (modifying dust = Noun + Noun modifier) that {that2} comprise P and Q
P= the atoms
Q= molecules Modifier1 and Modifier2
Modifier1 = created in the progenitive explosion
Modifier2 = persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
Option Analysis:
A) Modifier1 and Modifier2 correctly modify molecules and are parallel. hence correct
B) C) D) and E) try to introduce unwanted verb hence incorrect.
Now let’s observe the role of ‘that’s
That1- introduces dependent Noun clause. And that1 acts as the connector.
That2- introduces an adjective clause. And, this adj clause modifies ‘particles’. ‘That2’ is the pronoun subject of this adj clause.
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Re: Learn how That can help you demystify a long sentence [#permalink] New post 08 Sep 2013, 01:48
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SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Now we will simplify the sentence structure. We see that the subject of first clause is “rock samples”. The portion “taken from the remains of an asteroid” is a verb-ed modifier. “taken” cannot be a verb since it is not preceded by is/are/was/were. As we continue reading, we come across the word “that”, which signals presence of a clause. – that eradicated the dinosaurs. Then we continue reading and we find what appear to be the two verbs of the subject “rock samples” in the beginning of the sentence.

• Rock samples taken from the remains of an asteroid about twice the size of the 6-mile-wide asteroid
• that eradicated the dinosaurs
• has been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus is evidence of the earliest known asteroid impact on Earth.

ERROR ANALYSIS
Now that we have the simplified sentence structure, we can perform the error analysis. Notice how you can now focus on each clause one by one and figure out the grammatical correctness and errors. The SV pairs have been color coded. As you can see “that” in this sentence refers to the preceding noun – asteroid. It has its verb “eradicated”. We also clearly see the verbs for the plural subject – rock samples. These verbs are singular and hence there is SV number error here. So the correct choice should have plural verbs. This is the first and the primary error. The second error is the idiomatic usage of the phrase – dated to be. The correct idiom is ‘dated at’.


As per this analysis and if I've understood the article properly in this particular OG example. In this example "that" is playing the role of a subject and its not a connector. Correct?

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Re: Learn how That can help you demystify a long sentence [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2014, 08:03
maaadhu wrote:
Can you please explain the use of THAT in this sentence. I am confused.

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
a)persisting
b)persists
c)persisted
d)they persisted
e)are persisting


The OA is A.


Hi Sharaddha,

Can u explain this question.
Cl 1:Astronomers have theorized. . particles
Cl 2: that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust ( That is the connecting word)
Cl 3: that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and ("That" is the sub)
Cl 4: persisting in even the emptiest regions of space - There is no subject in this clause

so i thot OA in D. But how come OA is A.

Please explain.

Thanks in Advance,
Rrsnathan.
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Re: Learn how That can help you demystify a long sentence [#permalink] New post 27 Jan 2014, 08:04
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Hi rrsnathan,

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.

a )persisting
b) persists
c) persisted
d) they persisted
e) are persisting


MEANING ANALYSIS:

Let's begin with understanding the meaning of the sentence. The sentence says that according astronomers, Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust. Then it explains the "interstellar dust". These are particles that are made up of atoms and molecules. Further, the sentence presents a few characteristics of these "atoms and molecules". These "atoms and molecules" are created in the progenitive explosion, and they persist in even the emptiest regions of space.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

Let's break the sentence in its clauses.

Cl. 1: Astronomers have theorized
Cl. 2: that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles
Cl. 3: that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.

A thing to notice in this sentence is that "created" and "persisting" both are modifiers that present information about the "atoms and molecules". Also note that "persisting" just by itelf CANNOT be a verb because there has to be a helping verb is/am/was/were etc present before the -ing word to make a verb.

Also notice that "created" and "persisting" both are noun modifiers that modify the same entity. they preform the same function of modifying a common noun entity. Hence, they are perfectly parallel. So there are NO ERRORS in this sentence. Let's move on to the answer choice now.

PoE:

a) persisting: Correct.

b) persists: Incorrect. "persist" is not parallel to "created" anymore because it is a verb. It is now parallel to another verb "comprise". But singular verb "persist" doe snot agree in number with plural "atoms and molecules".

c) persisted: Incorrect. Same parallelism error as in Choice B. "persisted" in not even in the same verb tense as "comprise".

d) they persisted: Incorrect. This Independent Clause is NOT PROPERLY connected to the rest of the sentence. It is neither preceded by any Comma + FANBOYS nor by a semicolon, a colon, or a dash.

e) are persisting: Incorrect. Same errors as in Choice C.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Learn how That can help you demystify a long sentence   [#permalink] 27 Jan 2014, 08:04
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